Noroviruses are the major etiological agent of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide and are transmitted via fecal-oral route. As important waterborne and food-borne pathogens, they are included on the U.S. EPA Contaminant . Water can be contaminated by Norovirus containing feces released from either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Noroviruses have been linked to many waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S. They have been detected in sewage effluent and in ambient water .
Noroviruses cause a gastroenteritis, which usually lasts 24 to 48 hours. Symptoms include vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
Owing to its high effectiveness of ozone as a strong oxidant and lack of residue after disinfection, ozone can be used for both surface and groundwater disinfection. Several studies have proven ozone effectiveness on removing the Norovirus. It has been shown that ozone eradicates the Norovirus.
More than 99% of the Norovirus can be inactivated by ozone at 1 mg/liter within 2 min .
. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Feb. 2010, p. 1120–1124, accessed August 2015.
. Parshionikar, S.U., S. Willian-True, G.S. Fout, D.E. Robbins, S.A. Seys, J.D. Cassady, and R. Harris. “ Waterborne outbreak of gasteroenteritis associated with a norovirus”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(9):5263-5268, 2003.
. Mi Young Lim, Ju-Mi Kim, Jung Eun Lee, and GwangPyo Ko, “Characterization of Ozone Disinfection of Murine Norovirus”, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, , p. 1120–1124, 2010.
Ozone bubbles are used these days in several applications, but Ozone nano-bubbles can be used to purify water, improve the vitality of fish, animals, and plants. It could also contribute to solving problems associated with biology, medicine, and food in the future. The secret is behind the high surface area of the nano-bubbles, which provides high mass transfer rates compared to traditional bubbles.
Ozone nano-bubble technology can purify waste water from the polymerized toner production process by using energy derived from the bursting of fine ozone bubbles (below 300 nano-meters in diameter). Water treated through this technology can be reused in the production process, thus providing a closed water recycling system. In this case, the process will save noticeable amount of money and energy in waste water treatment of polymerized toner production.
Nano-bubble ozonation of oyster will eliminate 99 percent of the calicivirus in oyster. Ozone nano-bubbles are very effective and are a new horizon in ozone technology. Contact us today if you think this could be a very promising solution for your operation.
Recently we ran successful pilot tests to evaluate phenol reduction with ozone in industrial wastewater. Our customer was a waste management company that offers wastewater treatment services to it’s customers. They will take wastewater from customers and process this water to safely discharge to the municipal wastewater system.
Limits on Phenol were lowered from 50 ppm to 1 ppm for an acceptable discharge limit to the municipal wastewater system. This presented a problem to our customer as phenol levels from various locations could range from very low, to well over 50 ppm. All of this water is mixed together in equalization tanks and processed with chemical processes, and ultra-filtration. None of these processes were able to lower the phenol level below 8-12 ppm on average.
What is Phenol?
Phenol is an organic compound – C6H5OH. Phenol is also known as carbolic acid. Phenol is found in petroleum products, detergents, herbicides, and pharmaceutical drugs. High levels of phenol are toxic and can cause permanent health issues.
Initial pilot test:
The first ozone pilot test consisted of a 300 g/hr ozone injection system recirculating water in the 5,000 gallon over a period of 12 hours of time. This did successfully lower phenol levels and prove that ozone was a viable solution. See chart below for data:
This data did confirm that ozone was a viable option. However, lower phenol levels were required, and a better process was required for process flow situations.
Final Pilot Test:
After initial processing the wastewater is stored in 5,000 gallon holding tanks prior to discharge. Overall water flow rate for the processing plant is an average of 10 GPM when averaged over a 24 hour time-frame. We decided to pull water from one holding tank treat that water with ozone at 10 GPM and pump that water to a second holding tank.
This new setup allowed for a 100 gallon contact tank to be used that could be operated under pressure up to 35 PSI to improve mass transfer of ozone into water. Also, the smaller 100 gallon tank allowed for very high dissolved ozone levels to be maintained for about 10 minute of contact time. See diagram below for details on this set-up:
Using the same 300 g/hr ozone injection system 300 g/hr of ozone was introduced into the water flow rate of 10 GPM for an effective ozone dosage rate of 132 mg/l. Despite this lower ozone dosage rate improved phenol reduction was achieved. This did achieve an acceptable phenol level of less than 1 ppm. Phenol levels up to 12 ppm were consistently reduced to less than 1 ppm at water flow rates up to even 12 GPM, an ozone dosage rate of 110 ppm.
Phenol removal prior to ozone was performed with carbon vessels. These did work well and achieve the necessary phenol reductions. Carbon replacement was necessary every 2-weeks at a total cost of $15,000/month. An ozone system to replace this carbon was rented at a cost of $3,900/month. With electric and all maintenance costs total costs were still less than $5,000.month for a total savings of $10,000/month.
This pilot test did show good results and proved two things.
First: Phenol reduction with ozone, in heavy industrial wastewater is possible and can be cost effective.
Second: using proper ozone mass transfer methods the efficiency of phenol reduction, and likely many other contaminates with ozone is much more efficient and offers large cost savings.
A recent Time news article, “Tipsy Fish: When Anti-Anxiety Meds Get Into Rivers”, discusses the effect that pharmaceutical-laden wastewater discharge may have on the behavior of aquatic life – even though these micropollutant discharges are not considered toxic by current testing standards.
The article cites a Swedish study where perch, a type of schooling fish, were pulled from rivers downstream of a wastewater treatment facility. These fish showed a bio-accumulation of Oxazepam, an anti-anxiety medication. Further lab testing showed that perch exposed to higher levels of Oxazepam became more agressive and willing to strike out on their own.
This sort of behavior is completely out of the ordinary for schooling fish. Indeed, a solitary schooling fish on its own in nature would almost certainly lead to its untimely demise. So while this particular drug is not toxic to the fish in a classic sense, it could have detrimental affects on fish populations due to changes in behavioral mechanisms.
How does this relate to the world of ozone? Current wastewater treatment technology fails to break down most micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, which allows them to pass calmly into our rivers and lakes. One possible solution being tested by wastewater researchers is the use of ozone to combat these micropollutants. If the introduction of ozone does indeed prove successful at removing micropollutants from wastewater, it is one solution that may stem the ever-increasing tide of pharmaceuticals produced by our modern society.
If not, we can at least look forward to a future boom in wild-caught fish for the treatment of anxiety.
For more information about ozone research relating to micropollutants and pharmaceuticals, check out the IOA’s Ozone Engineering journal abstracts by searching the links here:
The International Ozone Association conference for 2012 officially kicked off tonight with a reception at the Harley-Davidson Museum. The opening reception for the conference was held in the banquet hall of the museum, with open tours of the Museum after the meal and drinks.
The opening reception was well attended with a great crowd of the International Ozone Association members.
The Harley museum offers a great venue with good views of the downtown Milwaukee area. If you have not seen it, this is a beautiful facility offering a cafe, banquet hall, and a great historical overview of the history of Halrey-Davidson.
Tomorrow morning the IOA show continues at the Hyatt Hotel in downtown Milwaukee with the opening reception beginning at 8 am, with technical sessions beginning at 10:30 AM. This is always a great opportunity to learn more about the ozone industry and some of the new events and research taking place within the industry.
Update: Further pictures from the IOA Opening Reception at the Harley Davidson Museum
IOA Members beginning to congregate at the Opening Reception.
IOA Members Gathering at the 2012 Opening Reception
Meal Catered by the Harley Davidson Museum, IOA 2012
Ecosphere’s new technology reduces the use of chemicals and helps natural-gas companies recycle water.
Ecosphere’s process replaces the biocides and descaling agents typically used in fracking water with an ozone-based treatment. Ozone itself isn’t benign, but Ecosphere produces it on site, so it doesn’t have to be transported, which reduces the chance of spills, the fuel needed for transport, and the wear and tear on roads—a major problem for communities with large fracking operations. The process lets well operators recycle water, reducing the total amount consumed and the amount of waste material that needs to be disposed of.
The use of ozone to treat water isn’t new, but it hasn’t been used much in part because it’s expensive. Ecosphere has found ways to reduce the amount of ozone needed by 90 percent. It uses a combination of approaches. First it flows water through proprietary structures that cause tiny bubbles to form and collapse—which is called cavitation. It also uses ultrasound to create more cavitation. In both cases, this breaks up biological contaminants in the water, making the ozone more effective, and creates free radicals that themselves help disinfect the water. The final step is to run an electrical current through the water, which causes some of the salts in the water to precipitate, reducing scaling. The process is cheaper than some other alternatives, such as UV treatment and desalination, the company says.
Cleared up: Ecosphere CEO Robbie Cathey holds up a jar full of dark untreated water, and cloudy water that’s been treated with his company’s technology. The treated water isn’t safe to drink, but it’s good enough for fracking. Ecosphere Technologies
We recently completed a pilot test using ozone for wastewater disinfection at a beef processing plant in Nebraska. This pilot test proved to be a great success and will now move into a full scale implementation. This is a recap on the pilot test that was performed.
Wastewater disinfection of E.coli was the main concern at this application. The limit on E.coli was 126 CFU/ml in the wastewater stream. Historically chlorine was used to meet these standards. However the limit on residual chlorine at this site was very low (0.001 ppm). To meet these standards additional chemicals are necessary. As limits on E.coli are tightened additional costs increase for both chlorination and chlorination. These increasing costs were the catalyst for ozone use at this location.
Total discharge wastewater flows range from 800 – 2000 GPM. This water is piped through a 10″ pipe for about 1/2 mile to a creek.
This customer had no method of ozone contacting, and no on-site compressed air. We decided to bring on-site a very high concentration ozone generator producing ozone from Liquid Oxygen Tanks (LOX).
Ozone was injected directly into the 10″ pipe in 2 separate locations using a proprietary ozone injection device. See image below.
Diagram below shows the entire system. LOX tanks provided oxygen at high pressures that were regulated to 40 PSI. This oxygen flowed at up to 80 LPM through the Semozon 250.3 Ozone Generator that was cooled with a recirculating water chiller. The ozone was split via flow meters to 2 locations for ozone injection.
Oxygen flows of 70 LPM produced 700 grams/hour of ozone at 11.6% by weight. This provided a 1.71 ppm ozone dosage rate into 1800 GPM of water. These parameters were used to collect data during the pilot test.
E.coli levels of 1700 cfu/ml were reduced to 30-40 cfu/ml consistently throughout the 1-week pilot test. This was well below the required discharge limit of 126 cfu/ml.
Ozone proved to be a success in this application and has the potential to eliminate the need for chlorination, and chlorination. Details on full scale implementation are in the works at this time.
Ozone Use in Wichita Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project
Mazzei released this great informative video on the use of Mazzei products to dissolve ozone into water for the Wichita aquifer storage and recovery project. This video shows the expertise that Mazzei has on large scale projects like this:
Mazzei Degas Separator was selected for the Wichita Aquifer Storage and Recovery Project. Mazzei’s GDT™ Degas Separator was chosen as the best method for entrained gas bubbles removal.
The expertise that Mazzei has on ozone mass transfer is also utilized on smaller applications with the commonly used ozone injectors and flash reactors.
Ozone Solutions for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater.
Mazzei released this great video on the use of ozone to remove EDC’s from wastewater. While this is a promo video for Mazzei products, it is still interesting as a promo video for ozone use in general:
We recently updated our OSW-3 Ozone Injection System. This is a small ozone injection system using an ozone generator with integrated air dryer. This is a small and compact ozone injection system for use with water flows up to 10 GPM. Following are the highlights of updates:
Improved contact tank allows for water pressures up to 50 PSI
New CM5 Grundfos Pump
Integrated water trap
Provisions for all the same optional automation as our popular Waterzone series
The OSW-3 uses a PVC mixing tank to lower costs verses our stainless steel models. The same stainless steel ozone injection pump is used on both the OSW-3 and the Waterzone Ozone Injection Systems. This ensures maximum durability of the system for the long term. In fact, many parts of these systems is same, this helps lower costs while providing a durable system.
This Ozone Journal is a blog managed by the employees of Ozone Solutions. The purpose of this blog is to inform and educate the readers about the world of Ozone, provide news about the ozone industry, and have an easy opportunity to inform about new ozone products.
Check back often, ask questions, and let us know if there is anything you would like to hear about.
What is ozone?
Ozone is an oxidant. Ozone (O3), sometimes called “activated oxygen", or "triatomic oxygen", contains three atoms of oxygen rather than the two atoms we normally breathe. Ozone is the second most powerful oxidant in the world and can be used to destroy bacteria, viruses, and odors.
Ozone is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures with a strong odor. Ozone can be produced as a gas from oxygen in air, or concentrated oxygen. This ozone gas can be dissolved into water, or used in the gas phase for a variety of applications discussed in this Journal.