Legionella causes Legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Most notably L. pneumophilia. Legionella species are the causative agents of the human Legionnaires disease and the lesser form, Pontiac fever. Legionella transmission is via aerosols by the inhalation of mist droplets containing the bacteria. Common sources include cooling towers, domestic hot-water systems, and fountains. Natural sources of Legionella include freshwater ponds and creeks. Outbreaks of Legionnaires disease have occurred in or near large building complexes such as hotels, hospitals, offices, and factories.
Initial symptoms are flu-like, including fever, chills, and a dry cough. Advanced stages of the disease cause diarrhea and nausea. Legionnaires disease can be very serious and can cause death in up to 5% to 30% of cases.
The biofilm formed by Legionella has been observed in PVC, stainless steel, rubber, wood, and copper. The biofilm formation can especially be found on the surface of water pipes, tower basins, and heat exchangers. Ozone successfully removes Legionella. It has been found that at an Ozone concentration of about 0.3mg/liter, a 4–5 log10 reduction in the number of organisms is achieved within 20 minutes . Ozone not only removes Legionella, but it also helps to lower corrosion in tubing materials and reduces scale level .
It is recommended to keep the residual of disinfectants, so when Ozone is used, a trace of a second disinfectant, like Monochloramine, is needed. Ozone instantaneously inactivates Legionella.
. Edelstein PH et al. (1982). Efficacy of ozone in eradication of Legionella pneumophila from
hospital plumbing fixtures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology , 44:1330–1334.
. http://www.ozonesolutions.com/info/using-ozone-in-cooling-towers, accesses July 2015.
Arsenic is a toxic compound present in nature. The poisoning of arsenic in the human body was reported to show various health disorders such as skin and liver cancer, nervous system damage, hepatic haematological disruption, and even death for dosages ranging from 70 to 180 mg .
Arsenic may occur naturally in dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals, electro plating, gold mining, fossil fuels, and other industrial discharges. Arsenic may enter into the human body through arsenic-bearing food, drinks, or air. The major passage of entrance is through drinking water. Arsenic contamination of groundwater and the associated health risks have been reported in many parts of the world such as Bangladesh.
Arsenics can be found in three formats: As(III), As(V) and methylated arsenic. As (III) is reported to be 25–60 times more toxic than As(V) and several hundred times more toxic than methylated arsenicals. So, converting As(III) to As(V) will decrease toxicity of As(III) noticeably. Ozone as a strong oxidant and is used to oxidize As(III) and make it less toxic. Ozone oxidizes As in seconds and the reaction is very fast. The As(V) then is bigger in size and can be removed by a filter. Ozone Solutions provides ozone generators and filter solutions for this type of application.
A recently completed study at the University of Houston  examined the effectiveness of seven oxidants for converting As III to As V. These were chlorine, permanganate, ozone, chlorine dioxide, monochloramine, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and Filox, a manganese-oxide-based solid media. Ozone was extremely effective at As III oxidation; complete oxidation was achieved in less than 15 seconds. No adverse effect was observed in the presence of either dissolved manganese or dissolved iron.
. Arsenic in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, World Health Organization 2011.
. Ghurye, G. and D. Clifford. 2000. Arsenic (III) Oxidation by Chemical Oxidants, UV and a Solid-Phase Oxidizing Media. American Water Works Association Inorganic Contaminants Workshop. February 28, 2000.
There are many benefits of ozone for the agriculture industry. One of the obvious ones is air treatment and odor control. As many states are allowing/considering the medical use of marijuana, the demand for growing marijuana has increased significantly. One of the problems for the growers is the strong smell of the marijuana. The smell during the flowering is very strong and it is objective to many people. In addition to marijuana, there are dozens of plants that can produce offensive odors when mass produced indoors.
Several strategies, like using carbon filters, have been employed by growers to mitigate the smell. Filters need to be changed frequently when they are saturated with odor. Ozone has also been employed for the smell removal. The reaction between ozone and the odor is very fast and breaks down the smell quickly. Ozone also disinfects the air and kills the contamination and molds.
There are some histories of unsuccessful applications of ozone for the farms. Most often, the unsatisfied users complain ozone has been harmful for the people or the plants. The myths come from misunderstanding the ozone application and safety levels. Ozone generators should be carefully sized based on the area of the farm, to be safe for the plants and the people. Also, there are options to install ozone generators on the air ventilation systems. In this case enough contact time should be considered for ozone to remove the smell.
Ozone is an oxidant produced through green technology. It reverts back to the oxygen it is produced from and creates a microbe free environment for the plants and the people but it should be carefully sized for each farm and odor removal.
NOx is a generic term for NO (nitric oxide) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide). It is produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures. NOx gases are formed whenever combustion occurs in the presence of nitrogen, like: automobiles, construction equipment, boats, power plants, industrial boilers, cement kilns, turbines and etc .
NOx mainly impacts respiratory conditions causing inflammation of the airways at high levels. Long term exposure can decrease lung function, increase the risk of respiratory conditions, and increases the response to allergens. NOx reacts with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form small particles. These small particles penetrate deeply into sensitive parts of the lungs and can cause or worsen respiratory disease, such as emphysema and bronchitis, and can aggravate existing heart disease.
NOx can be removed utilizing ozone in the following two methods:
- Direct method: in this method, NOx will be fed through a corona discharge unit. Generated ozone will convert NO and NO2 to N2O5. In spite of NO, N2O5 is very soluble in water and will produce HNO3 which can be sold commercially. The direct method has not been commercialized yet.
- Indirect method: In this method ozone first is generated in a generator and then is injected to the flue gas stream that contains NOx. Ozone convers NOx to N2O5. In a wet scrubber N2O5 is absorbed. This process has been commercialized and has reached 90 percent NOx reduction.
- http://dwb.unl.edu/teacher/nsf/c09/c09links/www.casahome.org/nitrogen.htm, accessed Jun 2015.
Petroleum products are made from crude oil which can contaminate the environment. Because there are many different chemicals in crude oil and in other petroleum products, it is not practical to measure each one separately. However, it is useful to measure the total amount of hydrocarbons which is referred to as Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Chemicals that occur in TPH include hexane, benzene, toluene, xylenes, naphthalene, fluorene, other constituents of gasoline, jet fuels, and of other petroleum products.
Gasoline at the gas stations, accidental spill or leak of petroleum products can contaminate ground water, soil and weather. TPH components can evaporate and enter the lungs. You may be sick by drinking water from a well contaminated with TPH. Children may be exposed by playing in soil contaminated with TPH .
TPH can cause headaches and dizziness at high levels in the air. Another compound can cause a nerve disorder called “peripheral neuropathy,” consisting of numbness in the feet and legs. Other TPH compounds can cause effects on the blood, immune system, lungs, skin, and eyes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that one TPH compound (benzene) is carcinogenic to humans .
Ozone will oxidize TPHs to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen. The green nature of ozone and its economic aspects has made ozone the best candidate for TPH removal. Ozone Solutions has a long history of providing soil and groundwater remediation systems to remove TPH [2-4]. The products can produce ozone in a diverse range from 20g/h- 5000g/h. Some of the products are stationary and some of the products are mobile trailers which can be dragged for any site remediation. The following figures shows our installation results for several location is USA.
. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=423&tid=75, accessed Jun 2015.
If the bird flu virus is detected in a bird, whole flocks are killed in the barn. The carcasses usually are composted in the barns where the birds had been living. It can be months before the farms are back in operation.
The bird flu virus can be killed by heat (90 oF for three hours and or 100 oF for 30 minutes). Ozone as a very strong oxidant that can be employed for treating the infected barns and farms. Ozone can be sprayed to wash the surfaces. Also, after wash down, it is possible to shock-treat the barns and buildings with gaseous ozone. Ozone is produced onsite and only needs electricity to operate.
Another advantage of using ozone is that there are no chemicals left on-site, which makes ozone unique for this purpose.
Ozone Solutions provides mobile ozone systems which are perfect for this application. These systems can be employed later in the farm . Do not hesitate to contact us for more information on how Ozone Solutions can partner with the Poultry Industry and solve many of the problems the bird flu causes.
Ozone Solutions also provides ozone trailer systems that will serve as excellent shock treatment solutions. These systems can be employed later in the farm . Do not hesitate to contact us for more information on how Ozone Solutions can partner with the Poultry Industry and solve many of the problems the bird flu causes.
Avian influenza is caused by an influenza type A virus which can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese, and guinea fowl) and is carried by free flying waterfowl such as ducks and geese. H5N2 doesn’t pose immediate health risks to the public or to food safety. However, the disease is capable of killing an entire flock within 48 hours. Experts say poultry remains safe for consumers, and the Center for Disease Control considers the risk of avian influenza to humans to be very low .
The latest outbreak of the avian virus come one day after USDA officials announced that H5N2 was found at a chicken laying facility in Osceola County, Iowa. Some 3.8 million layer hens at the farm affiliated with Sonstegard Foods Company will be euthanized to try to prevent the spread of the disease, according to the company .
Ozone already has been proved to be active on removing bird flu like H1N1 with %99.999 of virus kill. Ozone inactivates the virus mostly by peroxidation of both lipid and protein. Some studies have been carried out to show effectiveness of ozone for H5N1.H5N1 is very similar to H5N2 and previous studies show that 0.5 ppm of ozone causes 5 log reduction in the virus [3,4]. Terrier et al research shows that 0.05ppm of ozone generated in their cold plasma device causes 3-4 log reduction of the virus.
UV is also very effective in bacteria kill. Four log reduction of the virus has been observed using UV systems. Both UV and ozone can be applied for virus kill as the following:
- HVAC system: ozone or UV system can purify the circulating air in the chicken/Turkey facility.
- Bird water: the bird drinking water can be purified with UV. Ozone also can be employed for disinfecting the water and very small ozone residue in bird drinking water has sterilization effect for the birds.
- Bird feed: bird feed can be disinfected with ozone
- Surface sanitation: Surface and walls in the facility can be wash down and disinfected with ozone.
- Delivery truck sanitation: ozone can be employed to disinfect the delivery trucks before loading.
- Cold storage: Ozone gas can be injected in cold storages to keep the storage room free of bacteria and virus.
Learn more by calling our engineers and R&D team today! 1.712.439.6880
. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025352/, accessed on April 2015
.http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/04/21/poultry-turkey-avian-flu-crisis/26100287/, accessed on April 2015.
. TANAKA Hiroshi, SAKURAI Miei, ISHII Kousuke, MATSUZAWA Yoshiaki, “Inactivation of Influenza Virus by Ozone Gas”, Engineering Review, Vol.42, No. 2, 2009 .
. Terrier, O., B. Essere, M. Yver, M. Barthélémy, M. Bouscambert-Duchamp, P. Kurtz, D. VanMechelen, F. Morfin, G. Billaud, O. Ferraris,B. Lina, M. Rosa-Calatrava, V. Moules, “Cold oxygen plasma technology efficiency against different airborne respiratory viruses”, Journal of Clinical Virology”, 45,119–124, 2009.
. M. Ellin Doyle, White Paper on Effectiveness of Existing Interventions on Virus Inactivation in Meat and Poultry Products, Food Research Institute, Report UW–Madison, June 2010.
1,4 dioxane is classified by U.S EPA as probable human carcinogen. Several states have regulated dioxane level in the drinking water and groundwater to be between 3-85 µg/L . Dioxane is mostly used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and also is a byproduct during polyester production. Dioxane also contaminates ground water and when it penetrates into underground water it consequently contaminates drinking water.
Dioxane is fully miscible in the water and it is resistant to biological degradation. The best option for Dioxane reduction is using combination of hydrogen peroxide with Ozone or UV systems.
Please contact ozone solutions for your UV or ozone options to remove dioxine at 1.712.439.6880 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cyanide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that can exist in various forms. Breathing cyanide gas causes the most harm, but swallowing cyanide can be toxic as well. Cyanide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. When this happens, the cells die .
Cyanide in waste water is mostly observed in gold mining waste water. Cyanide is produced in large amounts (about 1.4 million tons each year) and gold recovery accounts for approximately 18% of total world cyanide production. Several methods, including chemical oxidation, are applied to destroy and reduce cyanide in several industries . The methods leave by products and sometimes they need time to complete the reaction. Ozone is an extremely powerful chemical agent which its oxidation reaction by cyanide is very rapid. Ozone provides complete decomposition and retains no harmful residue.
If you have more questions regarding the removal of cyanide from waste water, contact us via email at email@example.com.
. Barriga-Ordonez, F., Nava-Alonso, F. and Uribe-Salas, A. (2006). Cyanide Oxidation by
Ozone in a Steady-State Flow Bubble Column. Mineral Engineering, Vol. 16, pp. 117-122.
Hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid made of water, sand, and chemicals (90 percent water, 9.5 percent proppants, and 0.5 percent chemicals usually). This high pressure liquid is injected into a well to create cracks in the deep-rock formations. Proppants are sand and ceramic mixture which keep the cracks open, so when the hydraulic pressure is removed natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely .
During each hydraulic fracking 1-8 million gallon water is used. 400 gal chemical is used per fracking. These chemicals include 600 chemicals which some of them are toxic or carcinogen. If the water is not treated it will cause surface, soil and ground water contamination .
Air quality also can be degraded during fracking as Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) like benzene can penetrated in Air.
Ozone as a strong oxidant can be used for water reuse and treatment in fracking process. Ozone is powerful in removing VOCs and breaking down the most of dangerous chemicals. So it is anticipated ozone treatment will increase in fracking processes. You can check out our Ozone Remediation Trailers & Cabinets at our website.
. Hazen and Sawyer, December 22, 2009. Impact Assessment of Natural Gas Production in the New York City Water Supply Watershed. p.5.