Hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid made of water, sand, and chemicals (90 percent water, 9.5 percent proppants, and 0.5 percent chemicals usually). This high pressure liquid is injected into a well to create cracks in the deep-rock formations. Proppants are sand and ceramic mixture which keep the cracks open, so when the hydraulic pressure is removed natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely .
During each hydraulic fracking 1-8 million gallon water is used. 400 gal chemical is used per fracking. These chemicals include 600 chemicals which some of them are toxic or carcinogen. If the water is not treated it will cause surface, soil and ground water contamination .
Air quality also can be degraded during fracking as Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) like benzene can penetrated in Air.
Ozone as a strong oxidant can be used for water reuse and treatment in fracking process. Ozone is powerful in removing VOCs and breaking down the most of dangerous chemicals. So it is anticipated ozone treatment will increase in fracking processes. You can check out our Ozone Remediation Trailers & Cabinets at our website.
. Hazen and Sawyer, December 22, 2009. Impact Assessment of Natural Gas Production in the New York City Water Supply Watershed. p.5.
Grain Remediation is a growing topic and rightfully so. Chemicals like phosphine and methyl bromine are heavily used to protect stored grains from pests. Because of concerns on using chemicals in the post-harvest stage there have been several non-chemical pest control techniques. Use of temperature, heat treatment, and physical exclusion have been among these non-chemical alternatives.
Ozone is among the green non-chemicals which reduces mold spores in grain and kills stored product insects. Ozone reduces mycotoxins and different toxins in the grain and makes them safe for human and animal consumption . Ozone reverts back to oxygen when it is used in grain storage so there is no residue or remnants of ozone on the grain. Ozone is generated on site so there is no need for a storage tank. For a suitable ozone concentration, contact time is the key for the ozone fumigation process to be successful.
If you want to learn more about how you can keep you high yields in your grain storage facility, contact us at 1.712.439.6880 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Washing vegetables may prevent cross contamination chances, but without proper disinfection there is still a chance of Listeria, E.coli and Salmonella. Washing the fruits and produce does not totally remove Residues of vinclozolin, bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos . Some fruits like apples, cucambers, lemons, oranges, eggplants and bell peppers have a wax layer to extend their shelf life and this layer is not totally removed by washing or rinsing with water. Produce processors frequently spray their fruits and vegetables with a fine film of approved wax, lacquer or resin coating. Although the FDA considers these coatings to be safe for consumption, many consumers prefer to remove them before using the produce. This has the additional benefit of removing the majority of micro-organisms that can cause food-borne illness.
Washing fruits and vegetables with ozone not only disinfects them in seconds but it has the advantage of removing pesticides. Ozone also is very helpful in the wax removal process. Completely disinfect your produce and not damage the product by calling us today for a consult on how to add ozone to your process. 1.712.439.6880
Molded or extruded rubber products must withstand the effects of ozone cracking and outdoor weathering for satisfactory use. The test provides conditions to find the accelerated aging of the rubber and estimation of the life time for rubber and molded material. This data helps the manufacturer to estimate a reasonable warranty time for the customers.
Sample preparation is very important for these tests. Samples first should be conditioned at room temperature for 2-3 days and then they can be exposed to ozone. During the test, homogeneous ozone concentrations should be created inside the chamber. All part of the samples should be exposed to the ozone. Temperature inside the chamber should be controlled. Humidity of the chamber also should be recorded. The exposure time depends on the agreement between the seller and purchaser but 1-3 days tests are common. The common partial pressure of the ozone during the test are 100mPa and 50 mPa. Ozone test levels can change based on the agreement between the purchaser and the seller.
Crack size is also important. The standard is under 23 magnification there should be a specific crack size. In ASTM D1149 method B, there should not be any crack size.
Please contact us if you need to test your samples based on ASTM standards.
U.S. beef production (commercial carcass weight) is at 25.8 billion pounds a year. The total U.S. beef consumed was 25.5 billion pounds and average annual U.S. retail Choice beef price in 2013 was $5.29/lb . By increasing beef demand in the US and increasing demand for disinfectants that can be economical and at the same time be harmless to human and do not change quality of the meat is increasing. Several disinfectants have been used in the slaughter houses. Chlorine is one of the commonly used disinfectants. Chlorine also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae. Chlorine is not effective against spores. Household bleach (5.25 percent NaClO ), a common source, is cheap and readily available. It is typically diluted using 1:128 to 1:32 with water (1/8 to 1/2 cup per gallon of water). Disinfection selection depends on the slaughter house’s process and what they expect from disinfection. Disinfecting the beef, floor, air, equipment, and even disinfecting the water fed to animals are among the expectations from disinfection. Generally selecting disinfectant which has a wide range of elimination (eliminates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and spores) is the best criteria after economic considerations .
Chlorine disinfectants corrode metals and deteriorate fabrics. Chlorine in high concentrations irritates the mucus membranes, eyes, and skin. Organic material such as feces inactivate chlorine disinfectants, therefore, surfaces must be clean before using a chlorine disinfectant. A 50 percent stock bleach (2.125 percent) is half effective in in temperature to 50 0F. Iodine and Iodophor Disinfectants Provide wide germicidal activity and are relatively nontoxic. They have limited activity in the presence of organic matters. Chlorhexidine is relatively nonirritating to tissues. To be effective chlorhexidine must remain in contact with the surface for at least five minutes. Hard or alkaline water will cause precipitation of the active ingredients necessary for disinfection. Alcohols require time to work and they do not penetrate organic material. Alcohol irritates tissues and denatures protein which may promote bacterial growth in open wounds. They are too expensive for general use .
Ozone as a green oxidant is capable of destroying a verity of viruses and bacteria’s in a limited time. Ozone is capable of disinfecting even in the presence of organic matters. Ozone removes also smells from the slaughter house and ozone gas will disinfect the air (the ozone level should be less than 0.1 ppm to be safe for workers). Ozone is an oxidant and material compatibility should be considered when dealing with ozone.
. http://www.beefusa.org/beefindustrystatistics.aspx#sthash.aOviOo4X.dpuf, accessed Dec. 2014
. http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/archive/g1410/build/g1410.pdf, accessed Dec. 2014
Waste water generated in dental offices is very unhygienic and is highly contaminated. In an experiment, carried out by Ozone Solutions, a sample of dental waste water was treated to figure out a suitable ozone level for the disinfection of the waste water.
The initial smell of the solution was horrible. The color of the sample, as depicted in Figure 2, was a dark yellow color. The ozone testing protocol was designed and several ozonation tests were performed. During the initial ozonation, there was quite a bit of foaming. After a few minutes, the ozone deactivated the foaming agents in the fluid and foaming decreased.
Figure 1 – Ozone Concentration Meter
Figure 2 – Initial dirty, raw water from sample container
Figure 3 – waste water after 2 minutes of treatment
Figure 4 – effect of ozonation time on dental fluid treatment
As it is obvious in Figure 4, ozone helps not only to kill the pathogens in the samples, but it also successfully treats the sample color. The experiments show that ozone, as a disinfectant, can be employed for dental waste fluid treatment.
Non-indigenous aquatic species are a threat to marine resources around the world, with new introductions occurring on every coast. The introduction of NIS into coastal marine and estuarine waters comes from a variety of sources. Due to the large volumes and frequency of possible inoculations, ballast water is currently the most frequently cited method for the worldwide transfer of NIS. Annually, 21 billion gallons of ballast water are discharged into the U.S. .
Ballast water has been shown to contain a number of bacterial pathogens that can impact human health. Ballast water treatment by ozonation is one of the many treatment technologies being studied for implementation on board commercial vessels. Ozone will remove algae also and will eliminate deposit corrosion caused by biofilms. Please contact Ozone Solution for using ozone to disinfect ballast water.
Ozone not only has several applications in the industry sector, but it has interesting applications in the world of dentistry as well. Ozone dental therapy is an alternative therapy to conventional drilling and filling for non cavitated deciduous carious lesion. The infusion of Ozone into non-carious dentin prevented biofilm formation in vitro from S.mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus over a 4 week period. Some studies have demonstrated that 40 second application of Ozone is sufficient to kill different concentrations of S.mutans and application of 60 second has almost completely eliminated S.mutans, L.casei and A.naeslundii. Ozone is also found to be effective against the microflora associated with primary root caries lesions .
Ozone can be used to help treat periodontal disease by using ozonated water flushed below the gum line and/or ozone gas infiltrated into the gum tissue and supporting tissues. Ozone can be employed in all forms during root canal treatment to kill bacteria, sterilize the canal system, and to stimulate faster healing. As a gas, ozone can get to places traditional liquids can’t because the gas can permeate the tiny tubules that cannot otherwise be accessed.
Ozone can be used to kill decay-causing bacteria. Since ozone is a gas, it can permeate into areas below the gum line, into the grooves of teeth and over the smooth surfaces of the teeth, and will kill bacteria on contact. Because ozone can harden compromised tooth structure, flooding a sensitive area or tooth with ozone gas can effectively eliminate sensitivity.
http://omicsonline.org/scientific-reports/2161-1122-SR-473.pdf, accessed Nov. 2014.
In a fish farm and aquarium, conventional solids removal, such as sponge floss filters and sand filters, are removing coarse and filterable solids, but they are not capable of removing fine colloidal solids. In another point of view, nitrifying bacteria in bio-filters remove dissolved ammonia and nitrite, but not all dissolved organic wastes. As an aquarium matures, the accumulation of dissolved organic colloidal solids increases. This organic buildup decreases the performance of the nitrifying bacteria which causes harmful nitrite buildup. The biochemical oxygen demand also rises, so the oxygen levels decrease over time. These shifts in water parameters stress the aquarium inhabitants and may cause fish mortality. To reduce the necessity of large water changes, there is a very efficient alternative method of breaking down these organic wastes using a strong oxidizing agent. This method is “Ozonation.” Ozonation has several benefits in fish tanks including:
- Removal of dissolved solids (TDS and TSS) by clumping them together to bigger dimension particles that can be removed by the protein skimmer or activated carbon.
- Ozone oxidizes Organic compounds in water (TOC) and breaks them to simple organics that are now available for degradation by heterotrophic bacteria.
- Reduction of harmful ammonia (NH3-) and nitrite (NO2-) levels by oxidizing them to nitrate (NO3-).
- Precipitation of metals, such as Iron and Manganese.
- Algae and biofilm removal
- Removing smell by destroying sulfides.
- Degradation of pesticides, detergents, and possible trace of acetone, MTBE which will keep water healthy for inhabitants.
- Ozone kills 99% of bacteria and viruses and dramatically reduces BOD and COD levels.
- Increased water clarity (even if it had been very clear before ozone)
Ozone, at the end, reverts back to oxygen and increase dissolve oxygen level in water. The right ozone level is very important to keep fish healthy and the overdosing of ozone will be harmful for inhabitants.
The AC-500 is a versatile machine as it can operate with either a vacuum or a positive PSI (motive force) of up to 5 PSI. That versatility makes the AC-500 series a good choice for small research & lab applications. If you do not have a force to move the feed-gas through the machine, there is a model which comes with a built in air pump which could solve that issue. Please see the chart below!
The machinery requires minimal setup and provides you a simple but effective solution to many small ozone required projects. This ozone generator will provide years of reliable ozone generation at a low cost, but if needed, the machine uses field replaceable components, and is completely serviceable.
If you need a suitable air drier, we offer you the MAG-600; http://www.ozonesolutions.com/products/Air-Dryers/MAG-600_Air_Dryer
MAG-600 Air Dryer
The AC-500 ozone generator series is available in a few different configurations. Not all of these models are listed on our website at www.ozonesolutions.com, so give us a call @ 1-888-892-0303. If calling from outside of the USA, call 712.439.6880.