Bacterial contamination is a major concern in the food industry. Even small amounts of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other microorganisms can cause widespread illness after an infected product enters the market. Because of this, there are many guidelines and procedures in place to minimize potential contamination in food processing plants. Ozone is becoming more widely used in farms and factories to prevent contamination. Because of its reactivity, it is a very effective sanitizing agent, killing a larger percentage of microorganisms than other common disinfectants such as chlorine and formaldehyde.
Campylobacter is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium. It thrives in moist, reduced-oxygen conditions. It is carried in the intestinal tracts of livestock, especially chickens, making it a major cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Exposure to air, drying, and low pH can hinder the growth and spread of Campylobacter (Curtis and Butler). Freezing can deactivate the bacteria, but it doesn’t kill them with a return to room temperature, so heating is a more effective mode of killing and preventing the spread of Campylobacter.
Ozone is becoming a prevalent method of preventing Campylobacter contamination in the poultry industry. Ozone is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. It can act as an oxidant and disinfectant (Spartan Water Treatment). Ozone readily decomposes to O2, producing a very reactive free oxygen atom, which can cause lysis, the disintegration of bacterial cell walls. It is produced by exposing oxygen (either from air or in its pure form) to radiation, causing an oxygen to break off from the rest of the ozone molecule. Because of the short-lived nature of ozone, it must be generated on-site, leading to higher operating costs than other modes of disinfection. Despite some drawbacks, ozone’s strength as a disinfectant has led to its increased use in wastewater treatment and produce and livestock decontamination. (Boglarski and Telikicherla)
Points of Contamination
As few as 500 Campylobacter – the equivalent of 1 drop of contaminated raw chicken juicecan cause illness in a person. (Keener, Bashor, Curtis, Sheldon, and Kathariou) This makes it crucial to limit the contamination and spread of Campylobacteria in poultry. Because the bacteria live in the intestinal tract of chickens, the major source of contamination is through exposure to feces. Pre-harvest, an infected chicken can quickly infect the rest of the population. After slaughtering, there are numerous possible points of contamination, including fecal contamination of the skin and feathers, intest
inal breakage, and exposure to contaminated equipment or other infected carcasses. In addition, defeathering and scalding the carcasses opens up follicles, giving Campylobacter a place to hide from further methods of cleaning. After slaughtering, the birds are washed and immediately chilled. This becomes yet another potential point of contamination of the poultry.
Ozone can be put in the water that chickens drink as well as in the surrounding air. This produces healthier chickens, as it ensures that they are not infected by unclean water. Earth Safe Ozone measured the effects of its UltraPur ozonation system on three different farms, with an average flock size of 80,000 each. Several parameters including % of birds alive, average weight, and bacteria count were measured a year before and after the installation of the UltraPur system. The percent of birds alive rose from an average of 96.1% to 97.2%, which is an increase of about 900 chickens. The average chicken weight rose from 4.05 lbs to 4.15 lbs. The total bacteria decreased from over 100 ppm to less than 2 ppm. The decrease in total bacteria shows the effectiveness of ozone as a sanitizer, while the increase in average weight and % alive shows that ozone also makes the chickens healthier overall (Earth Safe Ozone).
Another major use of ozone in the poultry industry is in disinfection of the carcasses post-harvest. Ozone will not only kill Campylobacter, but all other known pathogens as well. Ozone is sprayed directly on the carcasses, the transportation equipment, and cutting utensils. In addition to its disinfecting properties, ozonated water is also sprayed on machinery to minimize filth residues from fats, oils, and grease. Since ozone produces no harmful byproducts, machinery does not require further rinsing after sanitation. This in turn makes it a safe alternative to formaldehyde and chlorine for the workers applying the ozone disinfectant. An ozone disinfection system is easy to implement in current processing plants as it can be put into any existing gas or aqueous dispensers.
Because of ozone’s reactivity, it is also much more efficient and effective at decontamination. J.C. Morris developed a lethality coefficient to show the effectiveness of ozone as a disinfectant. The lethality coefficient is determined by the residual concentration and the length of time required to kill 99% of microorganisms. The higher the lethality coefficient, the stronger the sanitizing effects of the disinfectant. For enteric bacteria, ozone has a lethality coefficient of 500, while chlorine (in the form of hypochlorous acid) has a value of 20. Other methods of chlorination even lower lethality coefficients. This demonstrates that, in a shorter time frame, ozone can kill a larger percentage of microorganisms than the alternatives (Spartan Environmental Technologies).
Pathogens have been and will continue to be a major issue in the food industry at all levels, especially Campylobacter with its ability to spread with ease and extremely low amount required to cause illness. Whether the disease is at the farm, at the slaughterhouse, or in the transportation/distribution centers millions of people could be at risk. Ozone provides a relatively easy alternative for cleaning or decontaminating the poultry and the equipment used on the poultry, especially since it can be included with almost any preexisting aqueous or gaseous substances used in sanitation. It is worth noting though that the company should take efforts to figure out approximate amounts of ozone required, as a way to reduce both unnecessary ozone costs and unintended remnants of ozone particles or free oxygen atoms. In the long run, ozone is generally a healthier sanitation substance than most other substances currently being used in the food industry and it is well worth the extra cost for its efficiency.
“Better Production from a Simple Idea.” . Earth Safe Ozone, n.d. Web. 24 June 2014. <http://www.earthsafeozone.com/pdf_docs/chicken_flyer.pdf>.
Boglarski, Steve , and Shyam Telikicherla. “Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation.” Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation. N.p., 1 Jan. 1995. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/DISINFECT/ozone.htm>.
Curtis, Patricia, and Jessica Butler. “Controlling Campylobacter in Poultry Plants.” . USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 16 June 2014. <http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/5c63b387-ec06-4365-9094-6682ce1d3d82/how_to_campylobacter.pdf?MOD=AJPERES>.
Keener, K.M. , M.P. Bashor, P.A. Curtis, B.W. Sheldon, and S. Kathariou. “Comprehensive Review of Campylobacter and Poultry Processing.” N.p., 20 Nov. 2006. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2004.tb00060.x/pdf>.
“Ozonated Water, Ozone Generator for Water & Air Treatment in poultry Industry.”, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.indianozone.com/poultry-farming.htm>.
“Ozonation in Water Treatment.” DWC-Water: How does Ozone disinfection works?. DecRen Water Consult, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.dwc-water.com/technologies/ozone-disinfection/how-does-ozone-disinfection-works/index.html>.
“Ozone System for Poultry Applications.” ozone poultry applications from faraday. Faraday Ozone, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.faradayinstruments.com/applications/poultry>.
“Ozone Water Treatment – Ozone Disinfection and Water Purification.” Spartan Environmental Technologies, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.spartanwatertreatment.com/Ozone-disinfection.html>.
“Understanding Ozone.” Ozone Safe Food Inc. – Manufacturers of Commercial Ozone Generators for Food Processing and Equipment Sanitation for the Meat, Beef, Poultry, Seafood, Produce, and Fruit & Vegetable Processing Industries.. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.ozonesafefood.com/overview.htm>.
Nitrosamines are formed via the reaction of secondary or tertiary amines with a nitrosating agent. In foods, the nitrosating agent is usually nitrous anhydride, formed from nitrite in acidic and is an aqueous solution. Food constituents and the physical makeup of the food can affect nitrosamine formation. Nitrosodimethylamine has been shown to be formed in certain foods as a result of the direct-fire drying process. In this case, oxides of nitrogen in the drying air nitrosate amines in the food being dried. The volatile nitrosamine which occurs most commonly in food is nitrosodimethylamine, and nitrosopyrrolidine occurs to a lesser extent. Due to limitations in analytical methodology, very little information is available on the levels of nonvolatile nitrosamines and other N-nitroso compounds in foods.
Nitrosamines in Food, Body Fluids, and Occupational Exposure
- Fried bacon
- Cured meats
- Nonfat dry milk
- Tobacco products
- Gastric juices
- Rubber products
- Rubber manufacturing
- Metal industries
- Pesticide production and use
- Certain cosmetics
- Certain chemical manufacturing
Nitrosamines are carcinogenic in animals. What level of exposure to these carcinogens do humans have? A 1981 report from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) estimated that the per capita exposure is about 1 microgram per day from foods and beverages, mainly from fried bacon and beer. Current exposure is probably closer to 0.1 microgram per day due to successful efforts over the past 20 years to reduce nitrosamine formation in foods and beverages. Reverse Osmosis (RO) concentrate also can have traces of nitrous amine .
 U.S. EPA (2012). N-Nitrosodimethylamine (CASRN 62-75-9). Intregrated Risk Information System.http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0045.htm
Deoxynivalenol (DON), commonly referred to as vomitoxin, is a mycotoxin that may be produced in wheat and barley grain infected by Fusarium head blight or scab. Fusarium head blight may infect grain heads when wet weather occurs during the flowering and grain filling stages of plant development. DON causes feed refusal and poor weight gain in some livestock if fed above advised levels.
Human food products are restricted to a 1-ppm level established by the FDA. This level is considered safe for human consumption. The food industry often sets standards that are more restrictive.
Moist ozone is able to remove 90 percent of the toxin, while dry ozone is capable of removing 70 percent of the toxin . Other studies indicate total DON removal using ozone . The study indicates that there is no change in properties before or after ozonation.
DON will not be killed by temperature, being resistant to heat in the range of 170 C- 350 C. Therefore frying, boiling or cooking the wheat, corn, or contaminated peanut will not be helpful. Spraying grain with chemicals can be harmful to the product, as the grain may absorb some of the chemicals. Ozone provides a safe alternative for disinfecting grains and peanuts.
For this week’s Wednesday Weekly Product to Watch we will be taking a look at the C16 hand held ozone detector. This hand held ozone monitor is our most popular unit for leak detection, because of its internal sample pump and flexible wand. This helps pinpoint the source of the ozone leak. The C16 can also be used for the measurement of ozone in large areas.
One of the many benefits of this monitor is the fact that you can measure ozone, and 30 other gases or vapors, with a variety of ranges depending on which sensor is used for each gas . The C16 has a very accurate sensor, because of electrochemical technology and has a fast response time, with less interference.
The C16 comes with a nice carrying case to protect the unit from damage, as well as spare batteries, a charger, a sensor keeper, data logging software, and a communications cable.
Visit our website today, or give us a call to learn more about the benefits of using the C16 PortaSense II Ozone Detector.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, and often fatal, illness for humans. EVD outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in the remote villages of Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests. The virus is transmitted to people through wild animals, and spreads in the human population via human-to-human transmission. Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are considered to be the natural host of the Ebola virus. Severely ill patients require intensive supportive care. No licensed specific treatment or vaccine is available for use in people or animals .
Ozone is helpful for killing EVD in the environment. As you know, ozone is at least ten times stronger than chlorine as a disinfectant. Ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for all
types of microorganisms . Therefore, employing ozone in water for disinfecting the contact surfaces is much more efficient than using current disinfectants. Ozone can purify the air, and it can be used in the households or public buildings. Ozone can also be employed in airlines, for minimizing virus transfer over long distances.
Finally, it seems that ozone can be used for destroying the virus inside blood. Indeed, for this application, extensive medical research is needed, and specific medical ozone therapy should be developed. Our immune systems run on oxygen, and produce Hydrogen Peroxide and Ozone. This kills diseases and microbes entering our bodies. Researchers have noticed that self-generated ozone is used by the immune system’s antibodies and neutrophils to destroy bacteria and fungi .
So by passing blood through an ozone device, which can kill only the virus, should be promising. Indeed, extensive medical research and device development is need in this case. Ozone Solutions has contacted the World Health Organization (WHO) for possible technical help and device development.
. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en .
. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/S04.pdf .
For this week’s Product to Watch, we will continue to focus on the different types of Feed Gas that can be used for ozone generation. This week, we will be talking about concentrated oxygen. Concentrated Oxygen refers to oxygen that is at least 90% pure, with moisture removed to a -100 deg F dew-point. It can be produced from an oxygen concentrator or delivered from an oxygen cylinder.
Using an oxygen concentrator from Ozone Solutions can be very beneficial. First, oxygen concentrators consistent ozone output, while eliminating the need for corona cell maintenance. Also, an oxygen concentrator has the potential to double your ozone output! To conclude, concentrated oxygen is the best choice for ozone generator feed gas.
When setting up an ozone system that uses an oxygen concentrator, the concentrator is placed in between the air compressor and the ozone generator. This way, the ambient that is pulled in through the air compressor gets filtered to leave only oxygen in the feed gas stream. Then, the oxygen flows into the generator for increased efficiency.
We receive lots of questions from our customers regarding the amount of ozone needed to remove odor from an object or place. While the details of the odor in your space or object make a difference in the amount of ozone needed, it is generally more successful to use a lower concentration of ozone for a longer duration than a higher concentration for a short amount of time.
For example, I had a canvas tool bag sitting in my garage that a cat had unfortunately urinated on. When I discovered the odor embedded in the tool bag from the urine, I decided to use ozone to eliminate the odor. I began by placing the bag into a plain cardboard box and ran a 40-gram ozone generator at approximately 8 percent and ran the line out. I ran the test for approximately 15 minutes.
I ran another test with the same bag in the same box. I used an ozone generator capable of .25 grams of ozone. This test was run overnight. The results were very interesting. The first test made my whole bag smell like ozone and the urine odor returned shortly after. The second test, on the other hand, was much more successful in eliminating the odor instead of just covering it up.
This is a great example of how it is not always the best solution to use high concentrations of ozone but instead give the ozone the adequate amount of time to penetrate and eliminate the odor. To learn more about using ozone to eliminate odor check out our information page, How Ozone Generators Work.
Since 1997, when ozone was declared to be Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) for use in food processing in the US, wineries have embraced the use of ozone. Its use has been generally accepted and documented to be effective for barrel cleaning and sanitation, tank cleaning and sanitation, clean-in-place systems (CIP), bottle cleaning and sanitation, irrigation, and for general surface sanitation.
Because ozone is highly reactive and unstable, it makes for a perfect final, no-rinse sanitizer. By reverting right back to oxygen, ozone requires no special disposal system. It is safe for dissolved ozone in your water to go down the drains, because it won’t kill the bugs in you biomass, pollute your pond, or destroy beneficial bacteria in you septic system or wastewater treatment plant.
In addition to those great uses of ozone in wineries, there’s more! Ozone won’t harm stainless steel and most of the materials you use in your operation on a daily basis. Find out more about ozone compatibility at our website. When used correctly, it is regarded as a safe, and often times as a safer, solution over using SO2 or steam.
Read more about why you want to start using ozone in your wine business.
On this week’s Wednesday | Weekly Product to Watch we will be reviewing our UV-106 Ozone Analyzers. The UV-106 Analyzer uses the UV Absorption method of detecting ozone. The ozone measurement range of the UV-106 differs based on the model chosen. The UV-106L measures from 0-100ppm; The UV-106M measures 0-1,000ppm; The UV-106H measures 0-20% by weight. These compact units come with an easy-to-use interface and active sampling available via the built-in pump. This makes the UV-106 Analyzers perfect for laboratory use. The Internal Datalogging capability is also very helpful for ozone research applications and troubleshooting ozone production issues with your Ozone Generator. It is recommended that not more than 30 feet of tubing be used to transport the ozone to the UV-106 Analyzer for recording. The UV-106 units are typically plugged into the wall for power, but since it’s so compact in size and weighs only a few pounds, it can be paired with the B3 Battery to make it portable.
Contact our Monitor Department to learn more about the Ozone Analyzers that Ozone Solutions offers!
Don’t forget to check back weekly to learn more about our Wednesday | Weekly Product to Watch!
Only an example. Final design will vary and include a handle.
Ozone Solutions is in the process of developing a brand new Turn Key series of oxygen concentrators. These units will be complete and ready to plug-in-play with a multitude of applications. All units will have a professional stainless steel, easy grip handle and will contain an air compressor in addition to one of our current OX-Series oxygen concentrators. By having all pieces in one ready-to-go box, transporting these products to job sites will be simple and easy. These Turn Key series products will have the ability to be mounted on a wall, attached to a cart, or even added to a current skid. The uses for these products will be virtually endless.
When you need pure oxygen for your mid-size ozone generator, the Ozone Solutions Turn Key oxygen concentrator is the perfect match for your application. The Research and Development on these products is almost complete and will begin the final production stage very soon.
If you are in need of a spare oxygen concentrator or just need one replaced, call Ozone Solutions and ask to speak to with one of our sales representatives today. They can assist you in securing your Turn Key Oxygen Concentrator system for delivery. Lead-time on these products will be 1-2 weeks.