The drinking water industry faces a number of questions as the regulatory and public communities become aware of the presence of compounds in water that were not previously detectable. With analytical advances over the past decade, several new classes of organic compounds have been identified.
Conventional treatment (coagulation plus chlorination) would have low removal of many Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) or Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). EDCs and PPCPs are emerging environmental contaminants that in very small concentrations may cause disruption of endocrine systems and affect the hormonal control of development in aquatic organisms and wildlife. PPCPs are continuously introduced into the environment and are prevalent at small concentrations , which can affect water quality and potentially impact drinking water supplies, ecosystems and human health.
The reuse of wastewater on agricultural lands may transfer these compounds to the soil environment. Due to the high polarity of these compounds, there could be leaches into the groundwater.
Existing strategies that predict relative removals of herbicides, pesticides, and other organic pollutants by activated carbon or oxidation can be directly applied for the removal of many EDC/PPCPs. But, these strategies need to be modified to account for charged (protonated bases or deprotonated acids) and aliphatic species. Some compounds (e.g., DEET, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil) had low removals unless ozonation was used. The addition of ozone substantially improves EDC and PPCP removals.
Schematic of EDC and PPCP leakage into drinking water (www.eusem.com)
 J. Lintelmann, A. Katayama, N. Kurihara, L. Shore, A. Wenzel, Endocrine disruptors in the environment (IUPAC technical report), Pure Appl. Chem. 75 (2003) 631–681.
Ozone is both widely known and proven effective at limiting and eliminating biological growth, such as algae. The most logical and relevant way to use ozone within the bio-fuels industry would be in the cooling towers. Ozone can be incorporated into an existing system with minimal system modifications. Often, cooling tower water is treated with disinfectants such as chlorine and bromine, which are consumable and can be costly. Ozone can effectively reduce, if not eliminate, the need for these consumable chemicals within the cooling water loop. Ozone can be injected directly into the cooling tower or it can be injected into the influent stream. If any biological growth is present upon installation of an ozone system, the initial ozone demand will be higher than actually needed during continuous use. Since ozone is not biased, it will oxidize metals, rubber, and plastics if able to. This is a major concern and also explains the need for why the levels of ozone in a system should be monitored at all time. Ozone generation is an emerging technology that can be very useful and also cost-effective if it is utilized correctly and respected for being a powerful oxidizer.
For this week’s Wednesday weekly product to watch, we will be taking a look at the Aeroqual UV Ozone Photometer called the UV-H.
The Aeroqual UV-H is a single beam photometer that is designed for measurement of ozone in the range of 0-200 PPM. It is a bench top analyzer that could be used for a variety of ozone measurement applications. The analyzer provides a user-friendly interface through its four line LCD digital display on the front of the instrument.
This analyzer is a high performance yet cost effective analyzer with full data logging capabilities. The UV-H uses a removable secure digital (SD) card to log your data directly to a PC using the supplied software. This instrument also has an optional 0-5 VDC analog output and relay output options that have user defined set points.
The one aspect that makes this analyzer unique is that it is very accurate at low concentrations.
- Wide measurement range of ozone (0-200 ppm)
- Single-beam UV photometer
- Pump sampling via PTFE tubing (e.g. monitoring outside of a room or duct)
- RS232 output as standard
- Optional 0-5V DC analog output and relay with user defined set points
- Full data logging functionality including a removable Secure Digital (SD) card
- 4-line x 20-character digital display
- Calibrated range 0-200 ppm or 0-400 mg/m3
- Precision <±5% of reading above 0.2 ppm
- ±0.01 ppm below 0.2 ppm
- Resolution 0.01 ppm
- T90 < 60s
- Sampling method Brushless DC diaphragm pump
- Sample flow rate 0.4 ±0.05 LPM
- Inlet filter 5 µm pore size, 37 mm PTFE filter
- Pneumatic connections Kynar ¼” compression fittings
- Wetted materials Kynar, Teflon PFA, quartz, aluminum, Viton
- Environmental operating conditions
- 0-95% RH (non-condensation)
- Display 4-line x 20 character VFD
- Digital interface RS232
- ID 1 (default) user configurable from 1 to 255
- Data logging 2 GB SD card
- Enclosure Metal instrument case
- 378 x 236 x 132 mm
- Power supply Switch mode power supply 24 VDC
- Input 90-260V AC; 47-63Hz
- Software PC data logging software (supplied)
- Options Analog output board with 0-5V 12 bit (0-200ppm) and set point
- controlled 30V DC 2A relay
- Accessories (optional) RS232 to USB convertor (R52)
- Spare inlet filters (R65)
- 10 m x 6.25 mm OD PFA tubing (R66)
For more information on this analyzer, take a look at our website.
Conventional flotation relies on floating of suspended solids on the top of liquid by air bubbles. A better separation effect is obtained when air bubbles are very small (micro-bubbles and nano- bubbles). In traditional dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems suspended solids and oily compounds are removed by coagulation, flocculation and removing the formed sludge by flotation by applying small air bubbles to increase buoyancy. Dissolved COD remains unaffected in DAF systems. By employing DOF, high concentration of ozone is available, which means a high potential of ozone oxidation and a high volume of micro-bubbles.
Schematic of a DOF system .
Dissolved COD remains unaffected and leaves a DAF with the effluent. When ozone is added to the air bubbles, it partially decomposes to highly reactive OH radicals, which in their turn oxidize the remaining dissolved COD. DOF removes non-biodegradable COD in a high level. As it is obvious in DOF systems, water quality parameters are removed by the two mechanisms of flotation and ozone oxidation. For this the reason, DOF systems have better efficiencies compared to DAF systems. It is estimated that DAF systems will be replaced by DOF systems especially in very polluted water systems to provide a one-step reduction of water quality parameters.
 http://www.ecotrade.org/homepage/michigan3533/catalog.asp?DirectoryID=29&CatalogID=52, accessed on Oct. 2014.
A new study conducted by researchers at Auburn University found that two harmful and potentially deadly bacteria – MRSA and E. coli – can live for several days on various surfaces in the confines of an airplane cabin. Researchers used actual arm rests, toilet flush handles, tray tables, window shades, seats and seat pockets to test the bacteria, in airplane-like conditions, and found that the bacteria can linger for several days, depending on the surface. 
Schematic of airplane cabin air system
Aircraft drinking water systems and aircraft watering points require periodic sanitizing and flushing. Traditional approaches are time consuming and their results are uncertain. Current disinfection systems use harmful chemicals like Purogene and Chlorine to disinfect the aircraft water system. The process requires the water tanks to be soaked with the chemicals, followed by a rinse cycle to remove chemical traces from the potable water system. The process is time consuming and costly with uncertain effectiveness, it also causes wastage of potable water.
Advantage of using ozone in aircraft disinfection
- No need to buy disinfectants and it saves money
- Kills viruses and microbes effectively
- It will be converted to oxygen and keeps a relief sense in the passengers
- Kills some insects and repels most of them
- Helps clean the cabin and cleans the surfaces
- Removes all odors (volatile organic compounds) and smells in the cabin
Ozone solution provides Mobile ozone carts which can help disinfecting the airplanes and treating airplane cabin water. For more information contact: firstname.lastname@example.org.
 http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2014/05/19/mrsa-lives-for-a-week-on-seat-back-pockets-in-airplanes-research-shows/, accessed August 2014
As the number of individuals who are diagnosed with cancer increases, other forms of treating cancer have become more popular in the past decades. In today’s world there are many medical advances that have become available. For instance, those unfortunate enough to be diagnosed with cancer now have alternative options for treatment available than just chemotherapy. Since the early 70’s ozone therapy has become another means to fighting certain cancers. Ozone is a chemically active form of oxygen. In terms of the medical ozone, it is a mixture of pure ozone and pure oxygen. “There is no exact ratio of these two reactants; it varies according to the medical ailment and patient’s condition.” .
The ozone is used in a couple of different ways. One of which includes “drawing a pint of blood from the patient. This is then gently mixed in an infusion bottle with the ozone until it turns bright red”. This method is called ozone major autohemotherapy. According to the Ozone-Association, this is when small quantities of ozone are “combined reacting completely then returned using a normal drip unit.” . Once entered into the system, a patient’s antioxidant system is boosted which aids in ridding the body of free radicals. It even goes as far as increasing the immune system, allowing the body to produce more white blood cells. The ozone rich blood also “helps the body fight multiple infections and inhibit tumor growth.” . Cancer cells are anaerobic, which means they make useable energy without oxygen, so the extra oxygen slows them down and cancer cells die when exposed to oxygen. Also, the molecular ozone is an effective disinfectant and an oxidizing agent which can aid in breaking down nearby cells like cancer cells. Another treatment for cancer is ozone intravenous. This process delivers a fluid straight into the bloodstream that contains ozone which is also used to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood .
There are some concerns of using ozone as a medical treatment since the Food and Drug Administration has labeled ozone as a toxic gas. When ozone is breathed in, it is considered hazardous on the tissue lining in the lungs and incites a slew of pathological effects. If a patient is given too much ozone it stresses and damages the cells, which can enable the progression of certain degenerative diseases .
One major bonus for ozone is that is it incredibly safe in today’s practice. In the early days, ozone could cause strokes and heart attacks because of gas embolisms when the ozone was administered incorrectly. The death rates due to ozone are .000007% which has the lowest risk of any treatments on the market today .
In terms of ozone to treat cancer scientists have yet to carry out “a placebo-controlled double blind study; however there have been several smaller clinical studies that have yielded results in with greater depth. Ozone therapy has proven that oxidizing cancer cells, which are anaerobic, greatly diminishes their mobility, as well as destroying the cells it comes into contact with, making it a safe and non-toxic way to treat cancer. This treatment has been proven beneficial chemical and cellular effects that have been the contributing factor to using hyperbaric oxygen as a primary therapy.
 “Oxygen Therapy.” AmericanCancerSociety.org. accessed Sep. 2014.
 “Aim and State of the Art.” OzoneAssociation.com. accessed Sep. 2014.
[3[ Kehr, Webster. “Ozone Cancer Treatments.” CancerTutor.com, accessed Sep. 2014.
 Galas, Matthew. “The Real Story Behind Oxygen Therapy.” Vanderbilt.edu. accessed Sep. 2014.
Bacterial contamination is a major concern in the food industry. Even small amounts of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other microorganisms can cause widespread illness after an infected product enters the market. Because of this, there are many guidelines and procedures in place to minimize potential contamination in food processing plants. Ozone is becoming more widely used in farms and factories to prevent contamination. Because of its reactivity, it is a very effective sanitizing agent, killing a larger percentage of microorganisms than other common disinfectants such as chlorine and formaldehyde.
Campylobacter is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium. It thrives in moist, reduced-oxygen conditions. It is carried in the intestinal tracts of livestock, especially chickens, making it a major cause of bacterial diarrheal illness. Exposure to air, drying, and low pH can hinder the growth and spread of Campylobacter (Curtis and Butler). Freezing can deactivate the bacteria, but it doesn’t kill them with a return to room temperature, so heating is a more effective mode of killing and preventing the spread of Campylobacter.
Ozone is becoming a prevalent method of preventing Campylobacter contamination in the poultry industry. Ozone is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. It can act as an oxidant and disinfectant (Spartan Water Treatment). Ozone readily decomposes to O2, producing a very reactive free oxygen atom, which can cause lysis, the disintegration of bacterial cell walls. It is produced by exposing oxygen (either from air or in its pure form) to radiation, causing an oxygen to break off from the rest of the ozone molecule. Because of the short-lived nature of ozone, it must be generated on-site, leading to higher operating costs than other modes of disinfection. Despite some drawbacks, ozone’s strength as a disinfectant has led to its increased use in wastewater treatment and produce and livestock decontamination. (Boglarski and Telikicherla)
Points of Contamination
As few as 500 Campylobacter – the equivalent of 1 drop of contaminated raw chicken juicecan cause illness in a person. (Keener, Bashor, Curtis, Sheldon, and Kathariou) This makes it crucial to limit the contamination and spread of Campylobacteria in poultry. Because the bacteria live in the intestinal tract of chickens, the major source of contamination is through exposure to feces. Pre-harvest, an infected chicken can quickly infect the rest of the population. After slaughtering, there are numerous possible points of contamination, including fecal contamination of the skin and feathers, intest
inal breakage, and exposure to contaminated equipment or other infected carcasses. In addition, defeathering and scalding the carcasses opens up follicles, giving Campylobacter a place to hide from further methods of cleaning. After slaughtering, the birds are washed and immediately chilled. This becomes yet another potential point of contamination of the poultry.
Ozone can be put in the water that chickens drink as well as in the surrounding air. This produces healthier chickens, as it ensures that they are not infected by unclean water. Earth Safe Ozone measured the effects of its UltraPur ozonation system on three different farms, with an average flock size of 80,000 each. Several parameters including % of birds alive, average weight, and bacteria count were measured a year before and after the installation of the UltraPur system. The percent of birds alive rose from an average of 96.1% to 97.2%, which is an increase of about 900 chickens. The average chicken weight rose from 4.05 lbs to 4.15 lbs. The total bacteria decreased from over 100 ppm to less than 2 ppm. The decrease in total bacteria shows the effectiveness of ozone as a sanitizer, while the increase in average weight and % alive shows that ozone also makes the chickens healthier overall (Earth Safe Ozone).
Another major use of ozone in the poultry industry is in disinfection of the carcasses post-harvest. Ozone will not only kill Campylobacter, but all other known pathogens as well. Ozone is sprayed directly on the carcasses, the transportation equipment, and cutting utensils. In addition to its disinfecting properties, ozonated water is also sprayed on machinery to minimize filth residues from fats, oils, and grease. Since ozone produces no harmful byproducts, machinery does not require further rinsing after sanitation. This in turn makes it a safe alternative to formaldehyde and chlorine for the workers applying the ozone disinfectant. An ozone disinfection system is easy to implement in current processing plants as it can be put into any existing gas or aqueous dispensers.
Because of ozone’s reactivity, it is also much more efficient and effective at decontamination. J.C. Morris developed a lethality coefficient to show the effectiveness of ozone as a disinfectant. The lethality coefficient is determined by the residual concentration and the length of time required to kill 99% of microorganisms. The higher the lethality coefficient, the stronger the sanitizing effects of the disinfectant. For enteric bacteria, ozone has a lethality coefficient of 500, while chlorine (in the form of hypochlorous acid) has a value of 20. Other methods of chlorination even lower lethality coefficients. This demonstrates that, in a shorter time frame, ozone can kill a larger percentage of microorganisms than the alternatives (Spartan Environmental Technologies).
Pathogens have been and will continue to be a major issue in the food industry at all levels, especially Campylobacter with its ability to spread with ease and extremely low amount required to cause illness. Whether the disease is at the farm, at the slaughterhouse, or in the transportation/distribution centers millions of people could be at risk. Ozone provides a relatively easy alternative for cleaning or decontaminating the poultry and the equipment used on the poultry, especially since it can be included with almost any preexisting aqueous or gaseous substances used in sanitation. It is worth noting though that the company should take efforts to figure out approximate amounts of ozone required, as a way to reduce both unnecessary ozone costs and unintended remnants of ozone particles or free oxygen atoms. In the long run, ozone is generally a healthier sanitation substance than most other substances currently being used in the food industry and it is well worth the extra cost for its efficiency.
“Better Production from a Simple Idea.” . Earth Safe Ozone, n.d. Web. 24 June 2014. <http://www.earthsafeozone.com/pdf_docs/chicken_flyer.pdf>.
Boglarski, Steve , and Shyam Telikicherla. “Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation.” Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation. N.p., 1 Jan. 1995. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/DISINFECT/ozone.htm>.
Curtis, Patricia, and Jessica Butler. “Controlling Campylobacter in Poultry Plants.” . USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 16 June 2014. <http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/5c63b387-ec06-4365-9094-6682ce1d3d82/how_to_campylobacter.pdf?MOD=AJPERES>.
Keener, K.M. , M.P. Bashor, P.A. Curtis, B.W. Sheldon, and S. Kathariou. “Comprehensive Review of Campylobacter and Poultry Processing.” N.p., 20 Nov. 2006. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2004.tb00060.x/pdf>.
“Ozonated Water, Ozone Generator for Water & Air Treatment in poultry Industry.”, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.indianozone.com/poultry-farming.htm>.
“Ozonation in Water Treatment.” DWC-Water: How does Ozone disinfection works?. DecRen Water Consult, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.dwc-water.com/technologies/ozone-disinfection/how-does-ozone-disinfection-works/index.html>.
“Ozone System for Poultry Applications.” ozone poultry applications from faraday. Faraday Ozone, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.faradayinstruments.com/applications/poultry>.
“Ozone Water Treatment – Ozone Disinfection and Water Purification.” Spartan Environmental Technologies, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.spartanwatertreatment.com/Ozone-disinfection.html>.
“Understanding Ozone.” Ozone Safe Food Inc. – Manufacturers of Commercial Ozone Generators for Food Processing and Equipment Sanitation for the Meat, Beef, Poultry, Seafood, Produce, and Fruit & Vegetable Processing Industries.. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.ozonesafefood.com/overview.htm>.
Nitrosamines are formed via the reaction of secondary or tertiary amines with a nitrosating agent. In foods, the nitrosating agent is usually nitrous anhydride, formed from nitrite in acidic and is an aqueous solution. Food constituents and the physical makeup of the food can affect nitrosamine formation. Nitrosodimethylamine has been shown to be formed in certain foods as a result of the direct-fire drying process. In this case, oxides of nitrogen in the drying air nitrosate amines in the food being dried. The volatile nitrosamine which occurs most commonly in food is nitrosodimethylamine, and nitrosopyrrolidine occurs to a lesser extent. Due to limitations in analytical methodology, very little information is available on the levels of nonvolatile nitrosamines and other N-nitroso compounds in foods.
Nitrosamines in Food, Body Fluids, and Occupational Exposure
- Fried bacon
- Cured meats
- Nonfat dry milk
- Tobacco products
- Gastric juices
- Rubber products
- Rubber manufacturing
- Metal industries
- Pesticide production and use
- Certain cosmetics
- Certain chemical manufacturing
Nitrosamines are carcinogenic in animals. What level of exposure to these carcinogens do humans have? A 1981 report from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) estimated that the per capita exposure is about 1 microgram per day from foods and beverages, mainly from fried bacon and beer. Current exposure is probably closer to 0.1 microgram per day due to successful efforts over the past 20 years to reduce nitrosamine formation in foods and beverages. Reverse Osmosis (RO) concentrate also can have traces of nitrous amine .
 U.S. EPA (2012). N-Nitrosodimethylamine (CASRN 62-75-9). Intregrated Risk Information System.http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0045.htm
Deoxynivalenol (DON), commonly referred to as vomitoxin, is a mycotoxin that may be produced in wheat and barley grain infected by Fusarium head blight or scab. Fusarium head blight may infect grain heads when wet weather occurs during the flowering and grain filling stages of plant development. DON causes feed refusal and poor weight gain in some livestock if fed above advised levels.
Human food products are restricted to a 1-ppm level established by the FDA. This level is considered safe for human consumption. The food industry often sets standards that are more restrictive.
Moist ozone is able to remove 90 percent of the toxin, while dry ozone is capable of removing 70 percent of the toxin . Other studies indicate total DON removal using ozone . The study indicates that there is no change in properties before or after ozonation.
DON will not be killed by temperature, being resistant to heat in the range of 170 C- 350 C. Therefore frying, boiling or cooking the wheat, corn, or contaminated peanut will not be helpful. Spraying grain with chemicals can be harmful to the product, as the grain may absorb some of the chemicals. Ozone provides a safe alternative for disinfecting grains and peanuts.
For this week’s Wednesday Weekly Product to Watch we will be taking a look at the C16 hand held ozone detector. This hand held ozone monitor is our most popular unit for leak detection, because of its internal sample pump and flexible wand. This helps pinpoint the source of the ozone leak. The C16 can also be used for the measurement of ozone in large areas.
One of the many benefits of this monitor is the fact that you can measure ozone, and 30 other gases or vapors, with a variety of ranges depending on which sensor is used for each gas . The C16 has a very accurate sensor, because of electrochemical technology and has a fast response time, with less interference.
The C16 comes with a nice carrying case to protect the unit from damage, as well as spare batteries, a charger, a sensor keeper, data logging software, and a communications cable.
Visit our website today, or give us a call to learn more about the benefits of using the C16 PortaSense II Ozone Detector.