Avian influenza is caused by an influenza type A virus which can infect poultry (such as chickens, turkeys, pheasants, quail, domestic ducks, geese, and guinea fowl) and is carried by free flying waterfowl such as ducks and geese. H5N2 doesn’t pose immediate health risks to the public or to food safety. However, the disease is capable of killing an entire flock within 48 hours. Experts say poultry remains safe for consumers, and the Center for Disease Control considers the risk of avian influenza to humans to be very low .
The latest outbreak of the avian virus come one day after USDA officials announced that H5N2 was found at a chicken laying facility in Osceola County, Iowa. Some 3.8 million layer hens at the farm affiliated with Sonstegard Foods Company will be euthanized to try to prevent the spread of the disease, according to the company .
Ozone already has been proved to be active on removing bird flu like H1N1 with %99.999 of virus kill. Ozone inactivates the virus mostly by peroxidation of both lipid and protein. Some studies have been carried out to show effectiveness of ozone for H5N1.H5N1 is very similar to H5N2 and previous studies show that 0.5 ppm of ozone causes 5 log reduction in the virus [3,4]. Terrier et al research shows that 0.05ppm of ozone generated in their cold plasma device causes 3-4 log reduction of the virus.
UV is also very effective in bacteria kill. Four log reduction of the virus has been observed using UV systems. Both UV and ozone can be applied for virus kill as the following:
- HVAC system: ozone or UV system can purify the circulating air in the chicken/Turkey facility.
- Bird water: the bird drinking water can be purified with UV. Ozone also can be employed for disinfecting the water and very small ozone residue in bird drinking water has sterilization effect for the birds.
- Bird feed: bird feed can be disinfected with ozone
- Surface sanitation: Surface and walls in the facility can be wash down and disinfected with ozone.
- Delivery truck sanitation: ozone can be employed to disinfect the delivery trucks before loading.
- Cold storage: Ozone gas can be injected in cold storages to keep the storage room free of bacteria and virus.
Learn more by calling our engineers and R&D team today! 1.712.439.6880
. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025352/, accessed on April 2015
.http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2015/04/21/poultry-turkey-avian-flu-crisis/26100287/, accessed on April 2015.
. TANAKA Hiroshi, SAKURAI Miei, ISHII Kousuke, MATSUZAWA Yoshiaki, “Inactivation of Influenza Virus by Ozone Gas”, Engineering Review, Vol.42, No. 2, 2009 .
. Terrier, O., B. Essere, M. Yver, M. Barthélémy, M. Bouscambert-Duchamp, P. Kurtz, D. VanMechelen, F. Morfin, G. Billaud, O. Ferraris,B. Lina, M. Rosa-Calatrava, V. Moules, “Cold oxygen plasma technology efficiency against different airborne respiratory viruses”, Journal of Clinical Virology”, 45,119–124, 2009.
. M. Ellin Doyle, White Paper on Effectiveness of Existing Interventions on Virus Inactivation in Meat and Poultry Products, Food Research Institute, Report UW–Madison, June 2010.
1,4 dioxane is classified by U.S EPA as probable human carcinogen. Several states have regulated dioxane level in the drinking water and groundwater to be between 3-85 µg/L . Dioxane is mostly used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and also is a byproduct during polyester production. Dioxane also contaminates ground water and when it penetrates into underground water it consequently contaminates drinking water.
Dioxane is fully miscible in the water and it is resistant to biological degradation. The best option for Dioxane reduction is using combination of hydrogen peroxide with Ozone or UV systems.
Please contact ozone solutions for your UV or ozone options to remove dioxine at 1.712.439.6880 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Cyanide is a rapidly acting, potentially deadly chemical that can exist in various forms. Breathing cyanide gas causes the most harm, but swallowing cyanide can be toxic as well. Cyanide prevents the cells of the body from using oxygen. When this happens, the cells die .
Cyanide in waste water is mostly observed in gold mining waste water. Cyanide is produced in large amounts (about 1.4 million tons each year) and gold recovery accounts for approximately 18% of total world cyanide production. Several methods, including chemical oxidation, are applied to destroy and reduce cyanide in several industries . The methods leave by products and sometimes they need time to complete the reaction. Ozone is an extremely powerful chemical agent which its oxidation reaction by cyanide is very rapid. Ozone provides complete decomposition and retains no harmful residue.
If you have more questions regarding the removal of cyanide from waste water, contact us via email at email@example.com.
. Barriga-Ordonez, F., Nava-Alonso, F. and Uribe-Salas, A. (2006). Cyanide Oxidation by
Ozone in a Steady-State Flow Bubble Column. Mineral Engineering, Vol. 16, pp. 117-122.
Hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid made of water, sand, and chemicals (90 percent water, 9.5 percent proppants, and 0.5 percent chemicals usually). This high pressure liquid is injected into a well to create cracks in the deep-rock formations. Proppants are sand and ceramic mixture which keep the cracks open, so when the hydraulic pressure is removed natural gas, petroleum, and brine will flow more freely .
During each hydraulic fracking 1-8 million gallon water is used. 400 gal chemical is used per fracking. These chemicals include 600 chemicals which some of them are toxic or carcinogen. If the water is not treated it will cause surface, soil and ground water contamination .
Air quality also can be degraded during fracking as Volatile Organic Compound (VOCs) like benzene can penetrated in Air.
Ozone as a strong oxidant can be used for water reuse and treatment in fracking process. Ozone is powerful in removing VOCs and breaking down the most of dangerous chemicals. So it is anticipated ozone treatment will increase in fracking processes. You can check out our Ozone Remediation Trailers & Cabinets at our website.
. Hazen and Sawyer, December 22, 2009. Impact Assessment of Natural Gas Production in the New York City Water Supply Watershed. p.5.
Grain Remediation is a growing topic and rightfully so. Chemicals like phosphine and methyl bromine are heavily used to protect stored grains from pests. Because of concerns on using chemicals in the post-harvest stage there have been several non-chemical pest control techniques. Use of temperature, heat treatment, and physical exclusion have been among these non-chemical alternatives.
Ozone is among the green non-chemicals which reduces mold spores in grain and kills stored product insects. Ozone reduces mycotoxins and different toxins in the grain and makes them safe for human and animal consumption . Ozone reverts back to oxygen when it is used in grain storage so there is no residue or remnants of ozone on the grain. Ozone is generated on site so there is no need for a storage tank. For a suitable ozone concentration, contact time is the key for the ozone fumigation process to be successful.
If you want to learn more about how you can keep you high yields in your grain storage facility, contact us at 1.712.439.6880 or email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Washing vegetables may prevent cross contamination chances, but without proper disinfection there is still a chance of Listeria, E.coli and Salmonella. Washing the fruits and produce does not totally remove Residues of vinclozolin, bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos . Some fruits like apples, cucambers, lemons, oranges, eggplants and bell peppers have a wax layer to extend their shelf life and this layer is not totally removed by washing or rinsing with water. Produce processors frequently spray their fruits and vegetables with a fine film of approved wax, lacquer or resin coating. Although the FDA considers these coatings to be safe for consumption, many consumers prefer to remove them before using the produce. This has the additional benefit of removing the majority of micro-organisms that can cause food-borne illness.
Washing fruits and vegetables with ozone not only disinfects them in seconds but it has the advantage of removing pesticides. Ozone also is very helpful in the wax removal process. Completely disinfect your produce and not damage the product by calling us today for a consult on how to add ozone to your process. 1.712.439.6880
Molded or extruded rubber products must withstand the effects of ozone cracking and outdoor weathering for satisfactory use. The test provides conditions to find the accelerated aging of the rubber and estimation of the life time for rubber and molded material. This data helps the manufacturer to estimate a reasonable warranty time for the customers.
Sample preparation is very important for these tests. Samples first should be conditioned at room temperature for 2-3 days and then they can be exposed to ozone. During the test, homogeneous ozone concentrations should be created inside the chamber. All part of the samples should be exposed to the ozone. Temperature inside the chamber should be controlled. Humidity of the chamber also should be recorded. The exposure time depends on the agreement between the seller and purchaser but 1-3 days tests are common. The common partial pressure of the ozone during the test are 100mPa and 50 mPa. Ozone test levels can change based on the agreement between the purchaser and the seller.
Crack size is also important. The standard is under 23 magnification there should be a specific crack size. In ASTM D1149 method B, there should not be any crack size.
Please contact us if you need to test your samples based on ASTM standards.
U.S. beef production (commercial carcass weight) is at 25.8 billion pounds a year. The total U.S. beef consumed was 25.5 billion pounds and average annual U.S. retail Choice beef price in 2013 was $5.29/lb . By increasing beef demand in the US and increasing demand for disinfectants that can be economical and at the same time be harmless to human and do not change quality of the meat is increasing. Several disinfectants have been used in the slaughter houses. Chlorine is one of the commonly used disinfectants. Chlorine also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae. Chlorine is not effective against spores. Household bleach (5.25 percent NaClO ), a common source, is cheap and readily available. It is typically diluted using 1:128 to 1:32 with water (1/8 to 1/2 cup per gallon of water). Disinfection selection depends on the slaughter house’s process and what they expect from disinfection. Disinfecting the beef, floor, air, equipment, and even disinfecting the water fed to animals are among the expectations from disinfection. Generally selecting disinfectant which has a wide range of elimination (eliminates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and spores) is the best criteria after economic considerations .
Chlorine disinfectants corrode metals and deteriorate fabrics. Chlorine in high concentrations irritates the mucus membranes, eyes, and skin. Organic material such as feces inactivate chlorine disinfectants, therefore, surfaces must be clean before using a chlorine disinfectant. A 50 percent stock bleach (2.125 percent) is half effective in in temperature to 50 0F. Iodine and Iodophor Disinfectants Provide wide germicidal activity and are relatively nontoxic. They have limited activity in the presence of organic matters. Chlorhexidine is relatively nonirritating to tissues. To be effective chlorhexidine must remain in contact with the surface for at least five minutes. Hard or alkaline water will cause precipitation of the active ingredients necessary for disinfection. Alcohols require time to work and they do not penetrate organic material. Alcohol irritates tissues and denatures protein which may promote bacterial growth in open wounds. They are too expensive for general use .
Ozone as a green oxidant is capable of destroying a verity of viruses and bacteria’s in a limited time. Ozone is capable of disinfecting even in the presence of organic matters. Ozone removes also smells from the slaughter house and ozone gas will disinfect the air (the ozone level should be less than 0.1 ppm to be safe for workers). Ozone is an oxidant and material compatibility should be considered when dealing with ozone.
. http://www.beefusa.org/beefindustrystatistics.aspx#sthash.aOviOo4X.dpuf, accessed Dec. 2014
. http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/archive/g1410/build/g1410.pdf, accessed Dec. 2014
Waste water generated in dental offices is very unhygienic and is highly contaminated. In an experiment, carried out by Ozone Solutions, a sample of dental waste water was treated to figure out a suitable ozone level for the disinfection of the waste water.
The initial smell of the solution was horrible. The color of the sample, as depicted in Figure 2, was a dark yellow color. The ozone testing protocol was designed and several ozonation tests were performed. During the initial ozonation, there was quite a bit of foaming. After a few minutes, the ozone deactivated the foaming agents in the fluid and foaming decreased.
Figure 1 – Ozone Concentration Meter
Figure 2 – Initial dirty, raw water from sample container
Figure 3 – waste water after 2 minutes of treatment
Figure 4 – effect of ozonation time on dental fluid treatment
As it is obvious in Figure 4, ozone helps not only to kill the pathogens in the samples, but it also successfully treats the sample color. The experiments show that ozone, as a disinfectant, can be employed for dental waste fluid treatment.
Non-indigenous aquatic species are a threat to marine resources around the world, with new introductions occurring on every coast. The introduction of NIS into coastal marine and estuarine waters comes from a variety of sources. Due to the large volumes and frequency of possible inoculations, ballast water is currently the most frequently cited method for the worldwide transfer of NIS. Annually, 21 billion gallons of ballast water are discharged into the U.S. .
Ballast water has been shown to contain a number of bacterial pathogens that can impact human health. Ballast water treatment by ozonation is one of the many treatment technologies being studied for implementation on board commercial vessels. Ozone will remove algae also and will eliminate deposit corrosion caused by biofilms. Please contact Ozone Solution for using ozone to disinfect ballast water.