ASTM D1149 Test for Rubber Cracking Under Ozone Exposure

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on January 20, 2015 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

Molded or extruded rubber products must withstand the effects of ozone cracking and outdoor weathering for satisfactory use. The test provides conditions to find the accelerated aging of the rubber and estimation of the life time for rubber and molded material. This data helps the manufacturer to estimate a reasonable warranty time for the customers.

Sample preparation is very important for these tests. Samples first should be conditioned at room temperature for 2-3 days and then they can be exposed to ozone. During the test, homogeneous ozone concentrations should be created inside the chamber. All part of the samples should be exposed to the ozone. Temperature inside the chamber should be controlled.  Humidity of the chamber also should be recorded. The exposure time depends on the agreement between the seller and purchaser but 1-3 days tests are common. The common partial pressure of the ozone during the test are 100mPa and 50 mPa. Ozone test levels can change based on the agreement between the purchaser and the seller.

Crack size is also important. The standard is under 23 magnification there should be a specific crack size. In ASTM D1149 method B, there should not be any crack size.

Please contact us if you need to test your samples based on ASTM standards.

Beef Processing Using Ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on January 6, 2015 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

U.S. beef production (commercial carcass weight) is at 25.8 billion pounds a year.  The total U.S. beef consumed was 25.5 billion pounds and average annual U.S. retail Choice beef price in 2013 was $5.29/lb [1]. By increasing beef demand in the US and increasing demand for disinfectants that can be economical and at the same time be harmless to human and do not change quality of the meat is increasing. Several disinfectants have been used in the slaughter houses. Chlorine is one of the commonly used disinfectants. Chlorine also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae. Chlorine is not effective against spores. Household bleach (5.25 percent NaClO ), a common source, is cheap and readily available. It is typically diluted using 1:128 to 1:32 with water (1/8 to 1/2 cup per gallon of water). Disinfection selection depends on the slaughter house’s process and what they expect from disinfection. Disinfecting the beef, floor, air, equipment, and even disinfecting the water fed to animals are among the expectations from disinfection. Generally selecting disinfectant which has a wide range of elimination (eliminates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and spores) is the best criteria after economic considerations [2].

Chlorine disinfectants corrode metals and deteriorate fabrics. Chlorine in high concentrations irritates the mucus membranes, eyes, and skin. Organic material such as feces inactivate chlorine disinfectants, therefore, surfaces must be clean before using a chlorine disinfectant. A 50 percent stock bleach (2.125 percent) is half effective in in temperature to 50 0F. Iodine and Iodophor Disinfectants Provide wide germicidal activity and are relatively nontoxic. They have limited activity in the presence of organic matters. Chlorhexidine is relatively nonirritating to tissues. To be effective chlorhexidine must remain in contact with the surface for at least five minutes.  Hard or alkaline water will cause precipitation of the active ingredients necessary for disinfection. Alcohols require time to work and they do not penetrate organic material. Alcohol irritates tissues and denatures protein which may promote bacterial growth in open wounds. They are too expensive for general use [2].

Ozone as a green oxidant is capable of destroying a verity of viruses and bacteria’s in a limited time. Ozone is capable of disinfecting even in the presence of organic matters. Ozone removes also smells from the slaughter house and ozone gas will disinfect the air (the ozone level should be less than 0.1 ppm to be safe for workers). Ozone is an oxidant and material compatibility should be considered when dealing with ozone.


[1]., accessed Dec. 2014

[2]., accessed Dec. 2014

Ozone for Dental Waste Fluid Treatment

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on January 2, 2015 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

Waste water generated in dental offices is very unhygienic and is highly contaminated. In an experiment, carried out by Ozone Solutions, a sample of dental waste water was treated to figure out a suitable ozone level for the disinfection of the waste water.

The initial smell of the solution was horrible.  The color of the sample, as depicted in Figure 2, was a dark yellow color. The ozone testing protocol was designed and several ozonation tests were performed.  During the initial ozonation, there was quite a bit of foaming.  After a few minutes, the ozone deactivated the foaming agents in the fluid and foaming decreased.

Dental Waste - figure 1

Figure 1 – Ozone Concentration Meter


Dental Waste - figure 2

Figure 2 – Initial dirty, raw water from sample container


Dental Waste - figure 3

Figure 3 – waste water after 2 minutes of treatment


Dental Waste - figure 4-1Dental Waste - figure 4-2Dental Waste - figure 4-3

 Figure 4 – effect of ozonation time on dental fluid treatment

As it is obvious in Figure 4, ozone helps not only to kill the pathogens in the samples, but it also successfully treats the sample color. The experiments show that ozone, as a disinfectant, can be employed for dental waste fluid treatment.

Ozone for Ballast Water

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on December 9, 2014 under Uncategorized | Read the First Comment

Non-indigenous aquatic species are a threat to marine resources around the world, with new introductions occurring on every coast. The introduction of NIS into coastal marine and estuarine waters comes from a variety of sources. Due to the large volumes and frequency of possible inoculations, ballast water is currently the most frequently cited method for the worldwide transfer of NIS. Annually, 21 billion gallons of ballast water are discharged into the U.S. [1].

The Bow Of A Big Tanker ShipBallast water has been shown to contain a number of bacterial pathogens that can impact human health. Ballast water treatment by ozonation is one of the many treatment technologies being studied for implementation on board commercial vessels. Ozone will remove algae also and will eliminate deposit corrosion caused by biofilms. Please contact Ozone Solution for using ozone to disinfect ballast water.




Ozone Applications in Dentistry

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on November 24, 2014 under Uncategorized | Read the First Comment

Ozone not only has several applications in the industry sector, but it has interesting applications in the world of dentistry as well. Ozone dental therapy is an alternative therapy to conventional drilling and filling for non cavitated deciduous carious lesion. The infusion of Ozone into non-carious dentin prevented biofilm formation in vitro from S.mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus over a 4 week period. Some studies have demonstrated that 40 second application of Ozone is sufficient to kill different concentrations of S.mutans and application of 60 second has almost completely eliminated S.mutans, L.casei and A.naeslundii. Ozone is also found to be effective against the microflora associated with primary root caries lesions [1].

Ozone can be used to help treat periodontal disease by using ozonated water flushed below the gum line and/or ozone gas infiltrated into the gum tissue and supporting tissues. Ozone can be employed in all forms during root canal treatment to kill bacteria, sterilize the canal system, and to stimulate faster healing. As a gas, ozone can get to places traditional liquids can’t because the gas can permeate the tiny tubules that cannot otherwise be accessed.

Ozone can be used to kill decay-causing bacteria. Since ozone is a gas, it can permeate into areas below the gum line, into the grooves of teeth and over the smooth surfaces of the teeth, and will kill bacteria on contact. Because ozone can harden compromised tooth structure, flooding a sensitive area or tooth with ozone gas can effectively eliminate sensitivity.

Reference, accessed Nov. 2014.

Ozone for Fish Farms

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on November 17, 2014 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

Fresh water fisheryIn a fish farm and aquarium, conventional solids removal, such as sponge floss filters and sand filters, are removing coarse and filterable solids, but they are not capable of removing fine colloidal solids.  In another point of view, nitrifying bacteria in bio-filters remove dissolved ammonia and nitrite, but not all dissolved organic wastes. As an aquarium matures, the accumulation of dissolved organic colloidal solids increases. This organic buildup decreases the performance of the nitrifying bacteria which causes harmful nitrite buildup. The biochemical oxygen demand also rises, so the oxygen levels decrease over time. These shifts in water parameters stress the aquarium inhabitants and may cause fish mortality. To reduce the necessity of large water changes, there is a very efficient alternative method of breaking down these organic wastes using a strong oxidizing agent. This method is “Ozonation.” Ozonation has several benefits in fish tanks including:

  • Removal of dissolved solids (TDS and TSS) by clumping them together to bigger dimension particles that can be removed by the protein skimmer or activated carbon.
  • Ozone oxidizes Organic compounds in water (TOC) and breaks them to simple organics that are now available for degradation by heterotrophic bacteria.
  • Reduction of harmful ammonia (NH3-) and nitrite (NO2-) levels by oxidizing them to nitrate (NO3-).
  • Precipitation of metals, such as Iron and Manganese.
  • Algae and biofilm removal
  • Removing smell by destroying sulfides.
  • Degradation of pesticides, detergents, and possible trace of acetone, MTBE which will keep water healthy for inhabitants.
  • Ozone kills 99% of bacteria and viruses and dramatically reduces BOD and COD levels.
  • Increased water clarity (even if it had been very clear before ozone)

Ozone, at the end, reverts back to oxygen and increase dissolve oxygen level in water. The right ozone level is very important to keep fish healthy and the overdosing of ozone will be harmful for inhabitants.

AC-500 series ozone generator

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on November 12, 2014 under Uncategorized | 2 Comments to Read

The AC-500 is a versatile machine as it can operate with either a vacuum or a positive PSI (motive force) of up to 5 PSI. That versatility makes the AC-500 series a good choice for small research & lab applications. If you do not have a force to move the feed-gas through the machine, there is a model which comes with a built in air pump which could solve that issue. Please see the chart below!

The machinery requires minimal setup and provides you a simple but effective solution to many small ozone required projects. This ozone generator will provide years of reliable ozone generation at a low cost, but if needed, the machine uses field replaceable components, and is completely serviceable.

If you need a suitable air drier, we offer you the MAG-600;

Manum-600 Air Dryer

MAG-600 Air Dryer

AC-500 Front SlantAC-500 Bottom

The AC-500 ozone generator series is available in a few different configurations. Not all of these models are listed on our website at, so give us a call @ 1-888-892-0303. If calling from outside of the USA, call 712.439.6880.

AC-500 table1

Ozone for Cancer Therapy

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on October 31, 2014 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

As the number of individuals who are diagnosed with cancer increases, other forms of treating cancer have become more popular in the past decades. In today’s world there are many medical advances that have become available. For instance, those unfortunate enough to be diagnosed with cancer now have alternative options for treatment available then just chemotherapy. Since the early 70’s, ozone therapy has become another means to fighting certain cancers. Ozone is a chemically active form of oxygen.  In terms of the medical ozone- it is a mixture of pure ozone and pure oxygen. “There is no exact ratio of these two reactants; it varies according to the medical ailment and patient’s condition.” [1].


The ozone is used in a couple of different ways.  Of which includes “taking a pint of blood that is drawn from the patient. This is then gently mixed in an infusion bottle with the ozone until it turns bright red”. This method is called ozone major auto-hemotherapy, according to the Ozone-Association. This is when small quantities of ozone are “combined reacting completely then returned using a normal drip unit.” [2]. Once entered into the system, a patient’s antioxidant system is boosted which aid in ridding the body of free radicals, it even goes as far as increasing the power of the immune system, allowing the body to produce more white blood cells. The ozone rich blood also “helps the body fight multiple infections and inhibit tumor growth.” [2]. The molecular ozone is an effective disinfectant and an oxidizing agent which can aid in breaking down nearby cells like cancer cells.  Another treatment for cancer is ozone intravenous.  This process delivers a fluid straight into the bloodstream that contains ozone which is also used to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood [3].

There are some concerns of using ozone as a medical treatment since the Food and Drug Administration has labeled ozone as a toxic gas. When ozone is breathed in, it is considered hazardous on the tissue lining in the lungs and incites a slew of pathological effects. If a patient is given too much ozone it stresses and damages the cells, which is can enable the progression of certain degenerative diseases [4].

One major bonus for ozone is that is it incredibly safe in today’s practice. In the early days, ozone could cause strokes and heart attacks because of gas embolisms when the ozone was administered incorrectly.  The death rates due to ozone are .000007% which has the lowest risk of any treatments on the market today [3].

Ozone therapy has proven that oxidizing cancer cells, which are anaerobic, greatly diminishes their mobility, as well as destroying the cells it comes into contact with, making it a safe and non-toxic way to treat cancer. This treatment has been proven to provide beneficial chemical and cellular effects that have been the contributing factor to using hyperbaric oxygen as a primary therapy. Ozone is very cheap compared to the other cancer therapy methods and new techniques and researches should be carried out to develop ozone cancer therapy.


[1] “Oxygen Therapy.” accessed Sep. 2014.

[2] “Aim and State of the Art.” accessed Sep. 2014.

[3[ Kehr, Webster. “Ozone Cancer Treatments.”, accessed Sep. 2014.

[4] Galas, Matthew. “The Real Story Behind Oxygen Therapy.” accessed Sep. 2014.

Teat Washing Using Ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on October 22, 2014 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

wdexpo2015The World Dairy Expo had a tremendous amount of vendors, equipment, and valuable information.  Some of the equipment I want to focus on are the teat wash products. Many of the large dairies have an anti-microbial sprayer, which is running a variety of anti-microbial sprays. The person milking usually sprays just the teat, and gives them a good wipe down before applying the milker. If the spray is applied too high on the udder, the milker will possibly suck some of the spray and “crud” as gravity flows down.

The new product is a brush that has an anti-microbial hose connected to it. The brush totally surrounds the teat, cleaning it like an automatic car wash. The brush is electrically safe, because it uses a 24-volt current. If a dairy is ozonating its incoming water to remove iron/manganese, it could use a small part of this water without any additional cost. We have an OSW-10 injection skid that could be easily matched up with an OZ-4AD ozone generator if you are not currently using ozone for any process. Ozone is a very good anti-microbial wash, so coupling with a brush like this could eliminate chemicals and save a lot of money.

If interested and need more information, please contact Ozone Solutions for more details.

Pharmaceutical, Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disrupting Compound removal by ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on October 17, 2014 under Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

The drinking water industry faces a number of questions as the regulatory and public communities become aware of the presence of compounds in water that were not previously detectable. With analytical advances over the past decade, several new classes of organic compounds have been identified.

Conventional treatment (coagulation plus chlorination) would have low removal of many Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) or Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). EDCs and PPCPs are emerging environmental contaminants that in very small concentrations may cause disruption of endocrine systems and affect the hormonal control of development in aquatic organisms and wildlife. PPCPs are continuously introduced into the environment and are prevalent at small concentrations [1], which can affect water quality and potentially impact drinking water supplies, ecosystems and human health.

The reuse of wastewater on agricultural lands may transfer these compounds to the soil environment. Due to the high polarity of these compounds, there could be leaches into the groundwater.

Existing strategies that predict relative removals of herbicides, pesticides, and other organic pollutants by activated carbon or oxidation can be directly applied for the removal of many EDC/PPCPs. But, these strategies need to be modified to account for charged (protonated bases or deprotonated acids) and aliphatic species. Some compounds (e.g., DEET, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil) had low removals unless ozonation was used. The addition of ozone substantially improves EDC and PPCP removals.


Schematic of EDC and PPCP leakage into drinking water (



[1] J. Lintelmann, A. Katayama, N. Kurihara, L. Shore, A. Wenzel, Endocrine disruptors in the environment (IUPAC technical report), Pure Appl. Chem. 75 (2003) 631–681.