The Michigan Grape & Wine Conference is a highly anticipated annual event that brings together many different members of the industry. Vineyard managers, tasting room staff, winery owners, wine educators and wine marketers alike will find sessions appealing to their specialty. This year’s conference is expected to draw about 300 attendees.
This year’s conference will take place February 21-24 in Acme, Michigan at the Grand Traverse Resort. It will feature many excellent sponsors and exhibitors, including Ozone Solutions – which provides technology for a wide variety of industry applications including CIP (Clean in Place) systems, odor control, bottle washing, and sanitation of surfaces and barrels.
New this year is a Winery Development pre-conference, a day- long session taking place on Wednesday, February 22 for those interested in getting involved with the industry. Participants will learn about licensing requirements, handling wastewater issues, zoning requirements, winery marketing, business planning and much more.
Also new this year is the Michigan Certified Alcohol Service Training, valuable for members of the service industry, taking place on Tuesday and Wednesday of this week. This session includes Techniques in Alcohol Management training, Customer Service Training and a Wine Fluency course.
In addition to the pre-conference sessions, Thursday’s agenda is filled with courses geared toward vineyard health, business development and the marketing of your winery businesses. Additional activities include a welcome reception on Wednesday evening, which includes sampling and networking with winemakers around the state, and a “Travelling Dinner” in which award winning Michigan wines will be paired with food from around the world.
This conference is designed to benefit both novice and experienced industry members, and encourages participation from neighboring states and regions. For more information and to register for the conference, please visit michiganwines.com/conference.
Michigan Grape & Wine Industry Council
From a social and environmental standpoint, there has been some recent hype on the use of antibacterial soap for washing hands to prevent illnesses in the past couple of years. Whether you are feeling chipper or under the weather, it is always a good practice to wash your hands. There are many of us who purchase products with labels such as “99.99% effective in reducing airborne bacteria” or anything with “antibacterial” listed on there with the idea that we are preventing illness. As a marketing strategy to fool society, they are manipulating the public’s perception that we are “clean” when in fact, this is not the case. “I suspect there are a lot of consumers who assume that by using an antibacterial soap product, they are protecting themselves from illness, protecting their families,” Sandra Kweder, deputy director of the FDA’s drug center, told the AP. “But we don’t have any evidence that that is really the case over conventional soap and water.” In fact, about 75% of liquid antibacterial soaps and 30% of bars use a chemical called triclosan as an active ingredient. When you spray your countertop or surface with your general household cleaner it will leave a residual of active compounds that target bacteria- but it will not oxidize them. The main ingredient in many solutions that have an antibacterial agent is called triclosan. Triclosan, is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in many consumer products such as detergents, toothpaste, and toys. With the widespread use, the soap industry expanded to nearly $1 billion dollars in the 1990s. In 1972, triclosan was introduced to the market and used strictly in health care facilities. Presently, several products such as wipes, mattress pads, cosmetics, and cutting boards have triclosan in it. This particular chemical has been the focus of a reform managed by an alliance of health and environmental groups. Studies display that triclosan has been increasingly linked to a wide range of health issues. There are five main reasons you should not use antibacterial soap with triclosan as an active ingredient. First, antibiotic-resistant bacteria is produced from antibacterial soap. Secondly, it does not produce any more benefits than conventional soap. Third, Triclosan can act as an endocrine disruptor, especially thyroid hormone. Fourth, some allergies such as hay fever and peanut allergies have been linked to prolong use from antibacterial soap. Last but not least, antibacterial soap harms the environment. Triclosan can disrupt algae’s ability to perform photosynthesis. In 2009, dolphins in the east coast were found to have high levels in their blood. As an act to regulate, Minnesota has become the first state to ban common germ-killer triclosan in soap. “Triclosan has been banned from consumer personal care cleaning products in the state of Minnesota by an act of the state legislature.” This will take an effect on January 1, 2017. Alternatives like a non-antibiotic hand sanitizer can be exercised in this fashion, yet the best idea for this is benefiting from the rewards of ozone. With ozone, it will attract to the single bacterium, virus, mold or cyst by changing its molecular shape and eventually revert back to oxygen, leaving no harmful by-products.
Stromberg, Joseph. “Five Reasons Why You Should Probably Stop Using Antibacterial Soap.” Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution, 3 Jan. 2014. Web. 03 Jan. 2017.
Here at Ozone Solutions, we often get confronted with questions from customers and prospects regarding some misleading information regarding ozone. Often, we here similar questions pertaining to the half-life of ozone in water and air, material degradation, and residual. Proper implementation is key to achieving outstanding results in your process. An interesting fact about ozone is that it successfully eliminated an organism in Milwaukee, WI in 1993. In the summer of that year, a cryptosporidium outbreak resulted in the largest waterborne disease outbreak in documented United States history. An estimated 400,000 were ill with over 100 deaths attributed to this outbreak. At that time, chlorine was the primary disinfection technology and was useless against this cyst. A 55 million dollar ozone system was installed and effectively killed the organism. With that being said, we would like to clear the air regarding a few fallacies that we have heard:
- “Ozone will oxidize my metal pipes.” – This claim conjures an image of aqueous ozone running through pipes and when you come in the next morning, they are rusted through. This is not the case. The pH level has more effect on corrosion rates of metals than most industry accepted dissolved ozone levels. While a powerful oxidizer, ozone has minimal effect on corrosion rates. Iron pipes that carry ozone gas, while not recommended, will last for months, even years, before any noticeable corrosion is present. For aqueous ozone, iron pipes will oxidize faster than water with just oxygen, but the pipes can last for years before needing replacement. Are you concerned with the material compatibility? Please give us a call and we will assist you with this information.
- “Ozone does not have residual.” – This statement is also false, but does need some clarity. Ozone has an extremely short half-life. This short half-life makes it very reactive and excellent at killing pathogens. In very clean water, ozone can last for several hours. In most food processing applications, ozone half-life is anywhere from 10-20 minutes using aqueous ozone applications.
- “Ozone is Explosive.” – This proclamation is also not true. For ozone concentrations produced by commercial and industrial grade ozone generator, ozone is NOT explosive. We have been working with ozone for almost 20 years and have not heard one instance where ozone caused an explosion. Believe us that if there ever was an explosion, it would make world news. In order for an explosion to occur, there needs to be additional oxygen added to an area, whereas our systems are converting the ambient air into ozone.
- “The sky is blue because of ozone.” –Although this statement does not pertain to our business, we thought it would be best to discuss this. While ozone is a light blue gas, the sky is blue for another reason. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Blue light has a shorter wavelength than the other “rainbow colors.” This blue light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue. Hence, the next time someone asks, “Why is the sky blue?” you will have the answer!
- (2003). Costs of Illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium Outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Emerging Infectious Diseases,9(4), 426-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0904.020417.
Ozone has now integrated itself into the second century of being utilized into water treatments, spas, swimming pools, and cooling towers. In 2001, the FDA approved that ozone can be safely used as an antimicrobial agent in the categories of storage and processing of foods, including meat and poultry in both gas and aqueous phases. Since 2001, the general acceptance of ozone has been embraced to many industries such as wineries. Ozone has proven to effectively disinfect and clean barrels, tanks, and general surface sanitation.
Upon the decision of many food processing facilities to have the ozone system in a stationary position, this route makes it easier to manage safety from the off-gassing and efficacy to be simple. Although, in the wine industry, ozone systems tend to be mobile with many different locations that need the flexibility to move the system from one area to another with the intent to have more locations and operators to produce mass production. It is imperative to have an entire system be dependable and straightforward. Ozone has remained the most powerful oxidant for disinfecting water or sanitizing surfaces with a 2.07 oxidizing potential. Once the aqueous ozone is sprayed, the ozone will revert back to oxygen through a 20 minute half-life time under normal environment conditions. With that being said, it is generated on-site and cannot be stored preventing more costly demands in the future
Ozone sanitizes by perforating metabolic enzymes of the bacteria and denaturing microbial membranes to disrupt its molecular shape. A particular concern with using ozone is knowing what material is compatible with ozone. Many materials used in the food/beverage industries are stainless steel (e.g., 316L) which is able to withstand ozone longer than chlorine. Plastics, such as PTFE (Teflon), PVC, PVDF, and silicon tubing and gaskets are ozone compatible. When it comes to the actual surface of barrels, it does not have a discrete surface, it is more like a 4-5mm sponge, often with blisters. The porosity of the barrels provide far too many nooks and crannies for ozone in any concentration and duration to completely eradicate all microbes. The ozone treatment of barrels is designed not to eliminate microbes, but instead to control them. This concept of microbial control is especially important when ozone is used to treat barrels with high populations of microbes, which can produce off-flavors or cause wine spoilage. Standard procedure for barrel washing varies from winery to winery, but it typically includes a high pressure, hot water rinse, followed by a dissolved ozone water treatment. The concentration of ozone applied, as well as the contact reaction time in the barrels, depends on the quantity and nature of the contaminant. As a result, larger quantities of microbes in contaminated barrels require longer treatments, but smaller doses may be required to handle sensitive materials. Typically, a 2.5 ppm ozone concentration for two minutes on healthy barrels, after a hot water flush, is sufficient. If the barrel is severely contaminated, a five-minute treatment may be required. Ozone kills microbes much faster than weaker oxidizers like chlorine or permanganate, but it decomposes naturally into oxygen unlike harsher agents with harmful disinfection by-products.
There are many ways that Ozone can be applied to the food and beverage industries. Some of the most essential cleaning duties are those related to the washing of process pipes, tanks, and process vessels where CIP (Clean in Place) systems are of frequent use. In terms of environmentally safe, cost-effective, and increased production, ozone has become a popular alternative to chlorine. In the past, chlorine has been the most common sanitizer used in CIP systems. Even though chlorine is effective, it has the potential to leave residuals and create potentially harmful by-products. However, ozone has become widespread since November 1892 when the FDA gave ozone GRAS approval. Ozone has been utilized pertaining to the beverage industry for disinfection of the fillers, bottles, and product(s). The beauty of ozone is that it has no by-products or residuals that can alter the flavors of a beverage or other product. It also has the ability to replace hot water cycles, eliminate some or all chemicals, reduce transporting and handling risks, and shortening the CIP cycle time. The implementation of ozone in the beverage industry can be of benefit for the process and downtime improvements more than the cost savings. The reasoning for applying ozone in the wine and beer industries is due to the nature of the final product. On the contrary, some beverage industries have favored the use of ozone merely for cost saving measures. With less time in the downtime period, product flow can be increased. According to the ECO3CIP project (2010-2013) which dealt with the original industrial application of an ozone based CIP system and its evidence. “According to the all the data obtained as a consequence of the implementation of the OZONECIP project the integration of the use of ozone in CIP systems allowed a reduction of the water consumption needed to perform the cleaning and disinfection operations of closed equipments in the winery, brewery and dairy sectors compared to conventional CIP protocols keeping, at least, the same disinfection and cleanliness efficiency and reducing at least by 50% the organic load in the cleaning waste waters produced.” (Reducing costs by integrating ozonated water in the CIP systems)
- Pascual, I. Llorca and A. Canut, Use of ozone in food industries for reducing the environmental impact of cleaning and disinfection activities. Trends in Food Science & Technology, (18) S29-S35 (2007)
The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more authority to access when serious health effects are in food companies. It mandates frequent inspections of food-production facilities and gives the FDA authority to issue mandatory product recalls. The recalls are issued if the FDA determines a product is adulterated or misbranded, and there may be a serious threat to the consumer. It also charges the FDA with establishing science-based standards for conducting risk-based inspections .
Under the law, the FDA can charge food plants for the re-inspection of the facilities. Ozone, with strong anti-oxidant properties, kills pathogens like, Listeria, salmonella, campylobacter, botrytis, E.coli in seconds . Ozone reverts back to oxygen after disinfection, and does not leave harmful chemical traces on the foods. In this case, ozone is considered a more powerful and green alternative to chlorine. All of these properties make ozone an ideal candidate for preventative FSMA actions.
With all of the FSMA requirements, Ozone Solutions is proud to help you with ozone preventative solutions. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
Author: Reza Zahedi
. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/, accessed Feb. 2015.
. http://www.ozonesolutions.com/info/ozone-effects-on-pathogens .
During the coating and lamination, the practice is melting a resin like PE, LDPE, PET and making a hot film. Then the hot film is coated in a material such as paper, paperboard, foil or even a plastic film. After that, the coating composite passes through some rolls to be compresses.
High temperature for extrusion (around 600 degrees F) not only needs energy but it may cause odor and taste problems for the products contained in the packaging. In this case low temperature extrusion has been investigated by the coating companies.
Ozone as a strong low temperature oxidizer is the answer for this demand. The Ozone process provides enhanced adhesive bonding on plastics, metals and inorganic materials and is also excellent for improving coating process technology. Ozone will work at room temperature and will oxidize the outer surface of the plastics. Consequently the plastic sticks to the paper or foil and then goes for compression in the rolls. The following figures depicts this application.
Proper ozone integration in this process and considering safety issues for the people who work in these facilities is very important. Ozone Solutions, by having experts in the field, is capable of integrating and safe operation of these coating systems.
Author: Reza Zahedi
The fumonisins are environment toxins produced primarily by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. There are at least 28 different forms of fumonisins, most designated as A-series, B-series, C-series, and P-series. Fumonisin B1 is the most common and economically important form, followed by B2 and B3. Fumonisins can occur in crops but corn is the most commonly contaminated crop by Fumonisin.
Fumonisin-producing Fusarium fungi causes a disease in maize known as Fusarium ear rot. Because of the health risk the FDA has regulated Fumonisins for human food or livestock consuption. The following table shows FDA acceptable Fumonisin level for human consumption :
Mekenzie et al. have checked the effect of ozone on Fumonisin reduction. Their result revealed that most of the Fumonisin was eliminated in 15 second using gaseous ozone.
A good review of ozone application for mycotoxin removal has been presented by Silve et al. .
Ozone Solutions offers a service to treat corn per bushel. Also we are offering customized ozone systems based on the process/barn. Ozone Solutions also offers Fumonisin tests in its state of the art lab.
Author: Reza Zahedi
. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ChemicalContaminantsMetalsNaturalToxinsPesticides/ucm109231.htm, accessed Jan 2016.
. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9350226, accessed Jan 2016.
. Otniel Freitas-Silva and Armando Venâncio, “Ozone applications to prevent and degrade mycotoxins: a review”, Drug Metabolism Reviews, Volume 42, Issue 4, 2010.
Advantage of Ozone for Date Disinfection
The Date is disinfected by methyl bromide and phosphine to increase its shelf life time. These chemicals have some toxic side effects and their residue should be below some thresholds on the food stuff. These health concerns have increased use of ozone as an alternative safe and efficient organic disinfectant.
Ozone exposure of 10g/h for three hours is capable of reducing 53 percent in mold and yeast load on the date fruits. Bactria load also decreases 76 percent during the ozonation. Ozone does not leave a trace on the dates and there is no color and taste change in the date fruits .
Employing higher concentration of ozone will yield close to 100 percent microbial load reduction.
. Farajzadeh D, Qorbanpoor A, Rafati H, Isfeedvajani MS,” Reduction of date microbial load with ozone”, J Res Med Sci. 2013 Apr;18(4):330-4.
Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Proper storage for blueberries is 0oC and relative humidity of 90-95 percent can provide 10-18 days of shelf life. Ozone gas not only can increase the shelf life of the blueberries but it can decreases weight loss and firmness loss of the blueberries. Meyer et al. found that blueberries stored under O3 blueberries show less weight loss and less loss of firmness (at 12°C after 10 days) when compared to the other traditional treatments .
Ozone also reduces 5.6 log Salmonella and 4.5 Log of E. coli O157:H7 by washing the blueberries.
. J. Bachmann and R. Earles, Postharvest Handling of Fruits and Veget abl es , ATTRA, 2000.
. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2015/164143/, accessed Nov 2015.
. Katherine L. Bialka, “DECONTAMINATION OF BERRIES WITH OZONE AND PULSED UV-LIGHT”, PhD thesis, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering
, The Pennsylvania State University, 2007.