Treating Harmful Formaldehyde Levels with Ozone

Posted by Brialle Veldman on November 4, 2016 under Odor Removal, Ozone Generators, Ozone Safety, Ozone Treatment | Be the First to Comment

Treating Harmful Formaldehyde Levels with Ozone:

            Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, generally pungent, yet sometimes odorless gas that when present in very small concentrations is not a major concern. However, it is present in public areas such as public buildings and many working environments that we are exposed to everyday that can be harmful. Formaldehyde is inevitably constant at low levels, usually less than 0.03 parts per million (ppm), in both outdoor and indoor air. Naturally occurring in the environment, it is an essential metabolic intermediate in all cells. With an occupational exposure limit value of .94 mg/m3, formaldehyde was considered safe against sensory irritation in the airways. The direct result from automobile exhaust is a major source of this chemical. It is also a component in tobacco smoke and those breathing it in as secondhand smoke are exposed to a higher level. Variables such as temperature, humidity, and air exchange all play a role in that concentration level. This chemical is generally used as a drying or curing agent in materials and thus release VOCs as part of this process. VOCs (volatile organic compounds) pose a health risk to everyone.                                                                                                                                                                                                        Why you may ask? VOCs are extremely hazardous by constituting side effects such as eyes, throat, and nose irritation, frequent headaches, nausea, and damaging the central nervous system. This problem may be lurking in your home or office building as you read this. For instance, purchasing pressed-wood shelves, laminate flooring, shampoos, etc all contain some form of formaldehyde. If your product does not say “readily biodegradable” and “nontoxic to humans and aquatic life” then it is likely that the product contains formaldehyde. What is most daunting is that this chemical can be odorless in some forms at low concentrations and a person can experience the off-gassing of formaldehyde and be unaware of it, which can lead to health concerns. Formaldehyde is permeated into the drywall or composite material in the area; therefore it is assumed that VOCs from the formaldehyde will continue to linger for several months to even a year. A crucial alternative to utilize is ozone for this application. Ozone, being a reactive gas, is an effective solution because it pulls electrons to oxidize. The first step is to access the space for the major source of VOCs. Secondly, remove the problematic furnishings, and then lastly, treat the exposed air with ozone. Call us for more details for a healthier environment!

Funny Formaldehyde




“Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes: A Reference for State …” N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2016.

The HP-500

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on October 1, 2014 under Odor Removal, Ozonated Water, Ozone Generators, Ozone Products | Be the First to Comment

For this week’s Wednesday Weekly Product to Watch, we will be taking a look at the bench top model ozone machine called the HP-500.

This product has been recently added to our small ozone machines line up, and we have received a number of good responses from our customers about its welcomed functionality and performance!

Since this model features a digital logic control, it provides you with an incremental timer complete with an “On” or “Timer Bypass” setting. The logic also enables you to adjust the ozone output from 100% down to 40%. The machine has both input and output ports.

The machine features both an inlet and an outlet connection port. The included “Air Drier” can be connected to the inlet port, using the provided flexible tubing. This air dryer not only removes moisture from the air, making the generator suitable for operating in humid environment, but also raises its ozone output. But that is not all!

The machine also comes complete with a built in air pump (2-3 PSI @ a flow rate of 1-2 LPM).
This built in motive force allows you to use this machine for many applications because of its “All built into one” approach!

Since it comes with a built in air pump, it would not be complete without a bubbler diffuser stone. In fact, we provide you two of them in case you want to use each diffuser for different purposes or applications!


Washing foods with ozonated water, Aquarium or Koi ponds, and removing odors from an air space containing a cat litter box, etc.

This model presents a very good value, (I did list most of its built-in capabilities) and is very easy on your pocket book at around $150!

For more complete information or to purchase it, please go to the product link below;

Using Ozone to Eliminate Odor

Posted by Jessica Bonestroo on July 11, 2014 under How is Ozone Made?, Odor Removal, Ozone Generators, Uncategorized | Be the First to Comment

We receive lots of questions from our customers regarding the amount of ozone needed to remove odor from an object or place.  While the details of the odor in your space or object make a difference in the amount of ozone needed, it is generally more successful to use a lower concentration of ozone for a longer duration than a higher concentration for a short amount of time.Portrait of a young woman holding her nose because of a bad smel

For example, I had a canvas tool bag sitting in my garage that a cat had unfortunately urinated on. When I discovered the odor embedded in the tool bag from the urine, I decided to use ozone to eliminate the odor. I began by placing the bag into a plain cardboard box and ran a 40-gram ozone generator at approximately 8 percent and ran the line out. I ran the test for approximately 15 minutes.

I ran another test with the same bag in the same box. I used an ozone generator capable of .25 grams of ozone. This test was run overnight. The results were very interesting. The first test made my whole bag smell like ozone and the urine odor returned shortly after. The second test, on the other hand, was much more successful in eliminating the odor instead of just covering it up.

This is a great example of how it is not always the best solution to use high concentrations of ozone but instead give the ozone the adequate amount of time to penetrate and eliminate the odor. To learn more about using ozone to eliminate odor  check out our information page, How Ozone Generators Work.




Used Wedeco GSO 50 for Sale

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 11, 2012 under Ozone Generators | 3 Comments to Read

Why buy new when used will do?

Ozone Solutions just finished validating the performance of a used Wedeco GSO 50 Ozone Generator.

Used Ozone Generator for sale

This Generator will produce 400 g/hr ozone from 66 LPM oxygen feed gas, or up to 203 g/hr ozone from dry air.  Ozone Solutions tested this generator in our shop and found the following performance:

Ozone Production (as tested by Ozone Solutions):

  • 400 g/hr @ 7% by weight from 66 LPM Oxygen
  • 345 g/gr @ 10% by weight from 40 LPM Oxygen

Used Wedeco Ozone Generator for sale

This generator is used and has been used in the past.  There is some minor wear and there are scratches.  The performance of this generator is on-par with the manufacturer specifications for a new ozone generator.

Used ITT Wedeco Ozone Generator

Wedeco GSO 50 nameplate

Xylem Wedeco Ozone Generator

Inside view of Used Wedeco Ozone Generator



MKS Ozone Generator Rental capable of 20% by weight ozone

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 9, 2012 under Ozone Generators | Be the First to Comment

Ozone Solutions now can offer the MKS 8200 Ozone Generator for rent.  These ozone generators are manufactured and used almost exclusively in the semiconductor industry.  However, the high concentrations of ozone produced by these ozone generators is also valuable in lab settings, along with many industrial applications.

High Concentration ozone generator for rent

Ozone Output:
85 g/hr at 10% and 10 LPM oxygen
80 g/hr at 13% and 7 LPM oxygen
35 g/hr at 20% and 2 LPM oxygen

This MKS Ozone Generator can produce ozone at up to 22% by weight at 1 lpm of oxygen flow.

We have set this generator up to be easy to use, only one switch will turn power ON and OFF.  Both oxygen gas, and cooling water will be necessary for operation, but no other resources are needed.

Semozon MKS Astex ozone generator for rent

We have mapped out an entire performance chart for this ozone generator to verify the ozone output across the entire range of output.

Performance chart of the MKS 8200 Ozone Generaotr

For more information on this generator or any of our rental equipment call us today.

Ozone generator feed gases, not including ambient air

Posted by booski on April 6, 2012 under How is Ozone Made? | Be the First to Comment

Ozone generator feed gases, not including ambient air.

1. Dry Air

Producing “Dry Air” can be done in a few different methods; one is by purchasing a cylinder of compressed dry air which is readily available from most bottled gas suppliers. (Similar to the picture of the green oxygen cylinders below)
Another method is to use the typical air preparation components, such as an air compressor, filters, desiccant dryer, and pressure regulators.

Air compressor

Air compressor

Refrigerated air drier

Refrigerated air drier

Air filter

Air filter




The air should be clean and dry, with a maximum dew point of -60º C (-80º F) and free of contaminants. Particles greater than 1 micron and oil droplets greater than 0.05 micron should be removed by filtration (Langlais et al., 1991). Large or small particles and moisture cause arcing which damages the ozone generator dielectrics. To understand the importance of  moisture which can be present in the feed-gas, read this page about the importance of dry air for ozone creation.

O2 bottles

O2 bottles

2. Oxygen

Oxygen as a feed- gas provides additional ozone output when compared to using Dry Air.
Producing refined oxygen can be done in a few different methods; one is by purchasing a cylinder
of compressed oxygen which is readily available from most bottled gas suppliers.


Another method is to use an oxygen concentrator, preferably one that uses the PSA or Pressure Swing Adsorption method. Pressure swing adsorption is a process whereby a special molecular sieve is used under pressure to selectively remove nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and hydrocarbons from air, producing an oxygen rich (80–95 percent O2) feed gas. This method is similar in the quality of oxygen that would come from an oxygen cylinder. (pictured to the right above)
The two are not similar in the pressure that they can deliver. Compressed cylinders have a much higher pressure (PSI).

OXUS-8 oxygen concentrator

OXUS-8 oxygen concentrator

OX-8 oxygen concentrator

OX-8 oxygen concentrator

OG-15 oxygen concentrator

OG-15 oxygen concentrator

You can view the many different Oxygen Concentrators available or click on the displayed pictures above to view that select model.

The table below presents a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each gas feed system.







Air (Dry)


Commonly used equipment, such as air compressor,
desiccant dryer, filters, etc.


More energy consumed per ozone volume


Proven technology


Extensive gas handling equipment


Suitable for small and large


Maximum ozone concentration of 3 – 4% by




Higher ozone concentration
(8 – 16%)


Safety concerns


Approximately doubles the ozone output for the
same ozone generator


Oxygen resistant materials


Suitable for small and large



NOTE: From the table above, you learned that “Dry Air” can give you up to 3-4% by weight of ozone gas, whereas oxygen will allow up to 16% by weight. That’s either 36.21 or 193.12 grams meter cubed. That is a big difference!
If you are asking, why is this? It is because Ambient Air contains only 19% oxygen.
Choosing the correct feed gas will also depend upon what your application is. Some applications will need High concentrations of ozone while others can be conducted with Lower ozone concentrations.

To learn more about the creation of ozone, or the products to do this, contact Ozone Solutions!

Digital Auto Controls for the Hess Ozone Generators

Posted by Joel Leusink on January 30, 2012 under Ozone Generators | Be the First to Comment

Introducing: Digital Auto Controls for the Hess Machine Ozone Generators

Hess Machine ozone generator

Due to the acquisition of Hess Machine by Ozone Solutions in 2010 we have the opportunity to offer updated technology in your current Hess Machine Ozone Generator.

Using the Q-45H dissolved ozone monitor, or another dissolved ozone monitor this control package will offer completely automated control of your ozone generator.


Learn more about the full line of Hess Machine ozone products HERE.

To learn if this is the right solution for your Hess Machine Ozone Generator Contact Us Today!


How is Ozone Made? – 3rd Edition

Posted by Joel Leusink on January 17, 2012 under How is Ozone Made?, Ozone Generators | 6 Comments to Read

Here at Ozone Solutions we are commonly asked, How is Ozone Made?  I have created 2 previous posts covering ozone production in nature, and the basics of a corona discharge ozone generator.

In the previous post about how ozone is made we covered the basics of a corona discharge ozone generator.  In that post we pointed out that there are three main parts to a corona discharge ozone generator:

  • Power Supply – this edition
  • Dielectric
  • Corona Cell

Ozone Generator Power Supplies

In this article we will cover the differences in power supplies used for corona discharge ozone generators.  Also, the different parts that are involved in the power supply itself.  While some are very simple, other may be very complicated.  First, we have to cover the basics of what these power supplies do.


Corona discharge ozone generators operate on the principle of a high voltage spark across a dielectric to form a corona.  The main component to any corona discharge power supply is a transformer to increase voltage from the standard 120 or 220 VAC power used to a higher voltage ranging from 500 – 20,000 volts.  This high voltage will create the spark (corona) necessary for ozone generation.

line frequency ozone transformer

Open coil, Line Frequency, 20,000 Volt Transformers. Click on image to see ozone generators this may be used in.

The voltage used by an ozone generator is mainly dependent upon the dielectric and air gap in the corona cell.  If there is a larger gap for the spark/corona to jump, a higher voltage is needed.  Also, thicker and various types of dielectrics will require varying voltages.  We will cover dielectric and corona cell design in future installments of How Ozone is Made.

Another factor is frequency.  Higher frequency ozone generators (see below for info in frequency conversions) will typically use lower voltages as this is less stress on the frequency conversion components and smaller gap ozone generators are more conducive to higher frequencies.

10,000 volt oil filled ozone transformer

Oil Filled, 10,000 Volt, Line Frequency Transformer

Line frequency ozone generators may use a basic rheostat to adjust the voltage into the transformer.  This will in turn, adjust the output voltage of the transformer and adjust the rate of ozone production.  In these ozone generators only a transformer and rheostat are used, no other electrical devices are necessary for ozone production.

Click HERE for a video of a line Frequency ozone generator in action!

Rheostat adjusts ozone output on line frequency ozone generators

Line Frequency Ozone Generator Rheostat. The dial turns a sweeper on the bottom that will adjust input voltage to the transformer.


Medium frequency Transformer for ozone generation

Medium frequency ozone generator transformer

Some transformers may use a line choke, or a series of transformers to achieve a the voltage step-up necessary.  This is an example of a larger (~450 gram/hour) ozone generator transformer assembly.

ozone generator transformer

Oil filled, Medium frequency ozone generator operates at 1,000 Hz and ~600 volts

Many ozone generators used what is basically a car coil to increase voltage in an ozone generator.  When ozone generator design was still new there were very few choices for transformers that could endure the abuse of 1,000 Hz, elevated voltage, and changing variables inside a corona cell.  Today, transformer options are greater and the use of a basic car coil is becoming less common.

Ozone Transformer

High Frequency Ozone Transformer

Most high frequency transformers are much smaller, open coil type transformers.  This image is very typical for what may be used inside a higher frequency ozone generators.  This same style transformer is used in some medium frequency ozone generators.

Frequency Conversion:

The spark inside an ozone generator is generated from high voltages created by the transformer, these voltages are all AC (alternating current).  This means the electrical current  alternates direction.  This reversal of electrical current occurs at a constant speed we call frequency.  This is measured with Hz (hertz).  Here in the USA typical electrical power is delivered at 120 VAC 60 Hz.  This means the voltage is 120 volts of alternating current, that alternates 60 times per second.  In other countries power may be delivered at 220 VAC 50 Hz.

This explanation is all to understand that the spark or corona inside the ozone generator with no frequency conversion would occur 50 or 60 times every second.  Many of the earlier ozone generators, and some still today operate at line frequency, an unaltered frequency.  This is generally referred to as a line frequency ozone generator.

Other ozone generators use a higher frequency to increase ozone output.  Higher frequencies would create more spark/corona every second.  There are three main types of ozone generators:

  • Line Frequency – 50-60Hz
  • Medium Frequency – 100 – 2,000 Hz
  • High Frequency – 5,000 – 30,000 Hz
Ozone Generator power supply

Medium frequency ozone generator power supply provides ~1000 Hz output

This circuit board is the driver board for a car coil type transformer as seen in the image above.  This is a great example of how simple the circuitry may be in a typical medium frequency ozone generator.

High Frequency Ozone Generator Power Supply

High Frequency ozone generator power supply, up to 30,000 Hz output

This is the power supply for a larger (up to 450 gram/hour) high frequency ozone generator.  This power supply can supply an output of up to 30,000 Hz, or as low as 1,000 Hz.  As you can see this power supply is much more circuitry and components are used to achieve these higher frequencies and flexibility.

Medium frequency Ozone Generator power supply

Medium frequency ozone generator power supply provides ~1,000 Hz output

This power supply is for a larger (up to 400 gram/hour) medium frequency ozone generator.

Putting it all together

There are many different types of ozone generator power supplies for many different applications.  Each serves a unique purpose in the ozone generation world.  Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Line Frequency Ozone Generators (50-60 Hz)

Line frequency ozone generators commonly use larger transformers and voltages from 10,000 – 20,000 volts.  The only other electrical component for operation is a rheostat as pictures above.  These are very simple and reliable setups that perform well for many years.  Absolutely nothing beats the reliability of a line frequency ozone generator.

As the components on most line frequency ozone generators are larger to achieve the same ozone output the costs for the transformer and rheostat are higher than the costs for the smaller transformers and simple printed circuit boards used for medium frequency ozone generators.  Also, line frequency ozone generators cannot achieve near the performance as the higher frequency ozone generators.

Medium Frequency Ozone Generators (100 – 2,000 Hz)

Clearwater transformer and driver

Medium frequency ozone generator transformer, with driver board.

Medium frequency ozone generators are most common today.  These ozone generators may produce 1 gram/hour to thousands of pounds/day of ozone.  The image above is a simple printed circuit board to increase line frequency to about 1,000 Hz, this board is attached right to the transformer that increase voltage to about 1000 volts.  This is an older design with a oil filled automotive style coil. however this is a good example of the typical size of power supply for a 5 – 20 gram/hour ozone generator.  There may be multiple power supplies powering multiple corona cells in one ozone generator to produce more ozone.  This is a very compact, cost effective, and efficient method to produce ozone.

While medium frequency ozone generators are fairly simple there are still more components than a line frequency ozone generator.  This means there are more things to fail and cause problems.  Due to the elevated frequency these generators also produce more heat, both in the electronics and corona cell.  Heat is the enemy of ozone.

Medium frequency ozone generators are also louder than others.  While this may not be a large concern in every application, at some frequencies there is a high pitched whine that is not acceptable in some occupied spaces.

High Frequency Ozone Generators (5,000 – 30,000 Hz)

Complete high frequency ozone generator power supply

High Frequency ozone generator power supply with transformer

High frequency ozone generators offer very compact designs due to smaller transformers and corona cells.  As the spark/corona is occurring up to 30,000 times per second the need for a large air gap and high voltage are alleviated.  In return the electronic circuit board becomes the largest, and most expensive component of some high frequency ozone generators.  This is illustrated very well in the above image.  This shows 3 power supply circuit boards with the small transformer mounted right to the circuit board!

High frequency ozone generators may be very energy efficient and compact in size allowing for a very flexible platform to either use multiple cells for redundancy or other configuration changes.  Many high frequency ozone generators are very cost effective as the large parts that carry a higher price (transformer and corona cell) are smaller, while the circuit board and electronics are more elaborate.

High frequency ozone generators contain many components that may fail.  They also produce a great deal of heat due to the high frequency.  However, with the very high frequency there is no audible sound from the ozone generators, they are the most silent of all types.  Many manufacturers have just begun implementing more high frequency components in the last 5 years.  Expect big changes in the future in this area of ozone generation.

This covers the basics of ozone generator power supplies.  I promise the following editions of How Ozone is Made will be shorter and less technical.

The next edition of How Ozone Is Made will cover Corona Cell design in Corona Discharge Ozone Generators.

If you have any questions about ozone generators, or what may be best for you, call our application engineers today!  We are glad to answer questions, dispel myths, and be a general information source for your ozone related questions.


How is Ozone Made? – 2nd Edition

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 28, 2011 under How is Ozone Made?, Ozone Generators | Read the First Comment

About a week ago we posted about how ozone is made.  That original post gave the fundamentals of how ozone is produced in nature and the basics of how ozone is produced within ozone generators, both UV ozone generators and corona discharge ozone generators.  It was pointed out then that most (almost every) industrial ozone generator uses corona discharge to produce ozone.  This 2nd installment is dedicated to informing you the reader about ozone generation from corona discharge.

How is ozone made?

The fundamentals are simple.  A spark (corona discharge) is used to split the diatomic oxygen molecule into valant oxygen atoms.  These oxygen atoms have a negative charge and will bond quickly with another oxygen molecule to produce ozone!  For each split oxygen molecule 2 ozone molecules are produced.

Ozone Generation from Corona Discharge

Ozone formation

A power supply is used to produce an electrical discharge across a dielectric, and an air gap.  The dielectric is used to diffuse the discharge across a large area as opposed to single point like a normal spark.  The oxygen molecules passing through the air gap are exposed to the electrical discharge and are split into ozone (at least that is the hope).  A great deal of heat is generated from this process and is removed from the electrodes as shown.

Corona Discharge Tube

ozone production

This image shows a more complete picture of a very typical ozone generation corona cell.  The dielectric is a tube allowing the air gap to flow around the outside of the dielectric, with the electrode around the outside.  This allows heat to be dissipated to the outside of the electrode efficiently.

This video shows a great example of ozone production from corona discharge.

There are three main factors when generating ozone from corona discharge:

  • Power supply
    • Operating voltage
    • Operating frequency
  • Dielectric
    • Glass
    • Ceramic
    • Mica
    • Quartz
  • Corona Cell
    • Tube – cylindrical style
    • Flat plate

When generating ozone from corona discharge there are a few factors that will affect performance that must be evaluated.

  • Cooling of the corona cell
    • Water cooled
    • Air cooled
  • Feed gas
    • Oxygen
    • Dry Air

I will try to cover some of these fundamentals and why one may be better than another for your specific application in future installments of “how ozone is made

New arrivals on our Used Ozone Equipment Page

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 20, 2011 under Ozone Generators | Be the First to Comment

Why buy new, when used will do?  Here at Ozone Solutions we maintain a full line of used ozone equipment on our Ozone Classifieds page.  Recently we received a few new items that are in great shape and common sellers.

We had a customer with 2 OZV-8S Ozone Generators and 2 V-20 Air Dryers with only a few months of use that decided to upgrade to different equipment.  These pieces are in great shape, look almost like new, and are listed well below list price.  Together these components will generate 4 g/hr of ozone from dry air.  This is a great combination to be used with an existing ozone injection system, or a new project.  These components would work great with an ozone injection system like the OSW-10.

OZV-8 Ozone Generator

OZV-8S Ozone Generator 8 g/hr

New price on the OZV-8S is $1,245.  We are selling these used OZV-8 Ozone Generators for $950.

V-20 Air Dryer

Used Air Dryer for Ozone Generator Systems

New price for the V-20 Air Dryer is $1295.  We are selling these used air dryers at a price of $550 each.

For more used ozone equipment, including used ozone generators, used oxygen concentrators, and used ozone monitors, see our entire classified site HERE.