Back Pressure Relating To Venturi Injector Method

Posted by Brialle Veldman on June 6, 2017 under Ozone for Beginners | Read the First Comment

When it comes to introducing ozone gas into water, there is more than one method. Venturi injector is probably the most common when it comes to handling higher concentrations of ozone. Venturi injectors work by forcing water through a conical body, which initiates a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet ports. This creates a vacuum inside the injector body, which initiates ozone suction through the suction port. This leads us to have to understand back pressure. For example, a pump delivering 18 GPM at 15 PSI can inject a maximum of 20 SCFH (10 LPM) of air if 7 PSI of back pressure exists.

If more suction is needed two options exist:

  1. Increase the size of the pump
  2. Decrease the injector outlet pressure by increasing the diameter of the pipe, reducing the number of elbows or lowering the height of the delivered water.

The greater the pressure differential, the more suction you will have.

 

Venturi Injector picture

(Venturis require a constant pressure differential to initiate ozone injection (15 PSI in this example).

When it comes to comparing two different types of generators, there are differences to keep in mind when you’re using a venturi injector method.  First, depending on the pump, your flow will be different. Our TG-Series is able to withstand higher pressures and is a popular choice because of that exact reason, which means it creates higher concentrations of ozone. If you maintain 10-25 PSI back pressure, you will achieve the ideal ozone concentration ranges. If it is above 35 PSI, you will not achieve as high of concentrations. Our OZV-Series is not able to withstand high pressures, (lower than 5 PSI) but is still a popular choice for applications with concerns to having lower concentrations for a cost-effective solution. Therefore, when utilized with a contact tank, back pressure is required to remove off-gas. When the water pressure is above 50 PSI, the concentration of ozone dissolved into the water decreases due to ozone off-gas. We highly recommend having a minimum of 5 PSI and a maximum of 50 PSI on your contact tank. The importance of this pressure range is to remove large undissolved ozone gas and not forcing the dissolved ozone to leave the solution.

Setting Ozone Fallacies Straight

Posted by Brialle Veldman on December 19, 2016 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

Here at Ozone Solutions, we often get confronted with questions from customers and prospects regarding some misleading information regarding ozone. Often, we here similar questions pertaining to the half-life of ozone in water and air, material degradation, and residual. Proper implementation is key to achieving outstanding results in your process. An interesting fact about ozone is that it successfully eliminated an organism in Milwaukee, WI in 1993. In the summer of that year, a cryptosporidium outbreak resulted in the largest waterborne disease outbreak in documented United States history. An estimated 400,000 were ill with over 100 deaths attributed to this outbreak. At that time, chlorine was the primary disinfection technology and was useless against this cyst. A 55 million dollar ozone system was installed and effectively killed the organism.  With that being said, we would like to clear the air regarding a few fallacies that we have heard:

  1. “Ozone will oxidize my metal pipes.” – This claim conjures an image of aqueous ozone running through pipes and when you come in the next morning, they are rusted through. This is not the case. The pH level has more effect on corrosion rates of metals than most industry accepted dissolved ozone levels. While a powerful oxidizer, ozone has minimal effect on corrosion rates. Iron pipes that carry ozone gas, while not recommended, will last for months, even years, before any noticeable corrosion is present. For aqueous ozone, iron pipes will oxidize faster than water with just oxygen, but the pipes can last for years before needing replacement. Are you concerned with the material compatibility? Please give us a call and we will assist you with this information.
  2. “Ozone does not have residual.” – This statement is also false, but does need some clarity. Ozone has an extremely short half-life. This short half-life makes it very reactive and excellent at killing pathogens. In very clean water, ozone can last for several hours. In most food processing applications, ozone half-life is anywhere from 10-20 minutes using aqueous ozone applications.
  3. “Ozone is Explosive.” – This proclamation is also not true. For ozone concentrations produced by commercial and industrial grade ozone generator, ozone is NOT explosive. We have been working with ozone for almost 20 years and have not heard one instance where ozone caused an explosion. Believe us that if there ever was an explosion, it would make world news. In order for an explosion to occur, there needs to be additional oxygen added to an area, whereas our systems are converting the ambient air into ozone.
  4. “The sky is blue because of ozone.” –Although this statement does not pertain to our business, we thought it would be best to discuss this. While ozone is a light blue gas, the sky is blue for another reason. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Blue light has a shorter wavelength than the other “rainbow colors.” This blue light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue. Hence, the next time someone asks, “Why is the sky blue?” you will have the answer!

 

  1. (2003). Costs of Illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium Outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Emerging Infectious Diseases,9(4), 426-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0904.020417.

 

 

Concentrated Oxygen for Ozone Generation

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on August 7, 2014 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

For this week’s Product to Watch, we will continue to focus on the different types of Feed Gas that can be used for ozone generation.  This week, we will be talking about concentrated oxygen.  Concentrated Oxygen refers to oxygen that is at least 90% pure, with moisture removed to a -100 deg F dew-point. It can be produced from an oxygen concentrator or delivered from an oxygen cylinder.

Using an oxygen concentrator from Ozone Solutions can be very beneficial.  First, oxygen concentrators consistent ozone output, while eliminating the need for corona cell maintenance.  Also, an oxygen concentrator has the potential to double your ozone output!  To conclude, concentrated oxygen is the best choice for ozone generator feed gas.

When setting up an ozone system that uses an oxygen concentrator, the concentrator is placed in between the air compressor and the ozone generator.  This way, the ambient that is pulled in through the air compressor gets filtered to leave only oxygen in the feed gas stream.  Then, the oxygen flows into the generator for increased efficiency.

O2 feed gas for ozone machine

Dry Feed Gas for Ozone Generation

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on July 23, 2014 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

For the next few weeks on our Wednesday | Weekly Product to Watch we will be discussing different types of Feed Gas that can be used for ozone generation.  This week we will be talking about Dry Air.  Ozone Solutions sells Air Dryers to provide dry air, or air which has moisture removed so the dew point is -60 degrees C or lower.   The importance of dry feed gas for Ozone Generation is that moisture (dew point) lowers the ozone output. Proper air preparation is critical to all corona discharge ozone generation (see the chart below), as it is directly related to the ozone output.Corona Discharge Ozone Generation

Left axis shows the relative output of the ozone generator.  (e.g. At -10 deg C dew-point, an ozone generator will be producing 60% of its maximum {rated} output.)

The V-10 and V-20 Air Dryers provide a consistent ozone output that can then be feed into an Ozone Generator for prime ozone production.  Air Dryers also reduce the corona cell maintenance as all dust is removed prior to the air entering your Ozone Generator.

Picture below is an example of how we have pumped a V-10 Air Dryer to an Ozone Generator.Dry Air Blog Pic 2

Check back next week to find out about Concentrated Oxygen as a Feed Gas on our Wednesday | Weekly Product to Watch!

How do Ozone Venturi Injectors work to dissolve ozone into water?

Posted by Joel Leusink on December 4, 2013 under Ozone for Beginners | 5 Comments to Read

Ozone Transfer via Venturi Injector

This article is intended to answer, how do venturi injectors work to dissolve ozone into water? Ozone is a gas, therefore proper gas/liquid contact mechanisms are critical to efficient system design. A popular method for adding the ozone gas into water is through the use of Venturi Injectors. Venturi Injectors work by forcing water through a conical body. This action creates a pressure differential between the fluid inlet and outlet ports, which in turn creates a vacuum inside the injector body. This vacuum now allows the ozone gas to be added into the flowing water stream via the suction port on the injector.

 

Venturis require a constant pressure differential to
initiate ozone injection (15 PSI in this example).

Advantages:

  • Very high ozone mass transfer rate (up to 98% if pressurized, 50-70% w/out pressure)
  • Minimal maintenance required
  • More controlled & consistant over time
  • Works well in both pressurized and unpressurized fluid streams

Disadvantages:

  • Requires energy from a booster pump, or pressurized water supply to achieve the 98% transfer otherwise can give you 50-70%

Tiny air bubbles (white) can be seen mixed with the water.

Water, moving from left to right, through a conical body creates suction which pulls air/ozone into the water stream.

Exclamation Mark

A very high liquid to gas ratio is required to achieve 98% mass transfer efficiency. In fact, the ratio required would
not be economical. Typical mass transfer efficiencies for Venturi Injectors are from 50-70% (without the use of pressure).

Click to learn more about ozone transfer via Venturi.

We carry the Mazzei Venturi’s for ozone injection.  These are the best choice for ozone injection via a venturi.  We carry the full line in stock from the 1/2″ to the 3″ venturi’s.

ProductsInset3.jpg

Click here to see the list of Mazzei Injector Venturi’s on our website

Another method to dissolve ozone into water is a bubble diffuser.  Follow this link to read our recent post about bubble diffusers.

The smell of rain, does ozone play a role?

Posted by Joel Leusink on August 14, 2012 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

Why Does Rain Have A Smell?

By Ben Cathey
Published: August 13, 2012, 6:25 PM

Watch video of this story HERE

SIOUX FALLS, SD –

The smell of fresh rain can bring us back to our childhood and the memories of being outdoors watching evening storms roll in.  The scent is unique and can’t be copied.

The technical name for the smell of rain is “petrichor,” which in Greek roughly translates to: “the smell from rain on dry ground.”  What you smell is actually a complex mix of bacteria, plant oils, algae and ozone.

Lightning also has a distinct aroma, the direct result of extreme heat and ozone. Ozone is often the first scent of a storm as stronger winds and water vapor help carry the smell.  That’s why you can sometimes smell the rain before ever feeling a drop.

Clean rain water alone is odorless by itself, but the scent comes when distant rains kick up soil. In a drought, bacteria in the ground creates spores, which are set loose by the rain and sent airborne.  Digging in the garden can also stir a similar must. You might have noticed that our recent showers had a stronger aroma than usual; that’s because plant oils have had more time to build up on rocks and pavement, and spores are more common due to the dry conditions we’ve had.

Household cleaning companies and perfume makers have tried to re-create the scent of rain.  But since some of the smells are so subtle, nothing in a bottle quite matches the real thing.

Watch video of this story HERE

Read story on original Keloland website HERE

 

Ozone generator feed gases, not including ambient air

Posted by booski on April 6, 2012 under Ozone for Beginners | Read the First Comment

Ozone generator feed gases, not including ambient air.

1. Dry Air

Producing “Dry Air” can be done in a few different methods; one is by purchasing a cylinder of compressed dry air which is readily available from most bottled gas suppliers. (Similar to the picture of the green oxygen cylinders below)
Another method is to use the typical air preparation components, such as an air compressor, filters, desiccant dryer, and pressure regulators.

Air compressor

Air compressor

Refrigerated air drier

Refrigerated air drier

Air filter

Air filter

 

 

 

The air should be clean and dry, with a maximum dew point of -60º C (-80º F) and free of contaminants. Particles greater than 1 micron and oil droplets greater than 0.05 micron should be removed by filtration (Langlais et al., 1991). Large or small particles and moisture cause arcing which damages the ozone generator dielectrics. To understand the importance of  moisture which can be present in the feed-gas, read this page about the importance of dry air for ozone creation.

O2 bottles

O2 bottles

2. Oxygen

Oxygen as a feed- gas provides additional ozone output when compared to using Dry Air.
Producing refined oxygen can be done in a few different methods; one is by purchasing a cylinder
of compressed oxygen which is readily available from most bottled gas suppliers.

 

Another method is to use an oxygen concentrator, preferably one that uses the PSA or Pressure Swing Adsorption method. Pressure swing adsorption is a process whereby a special molecular sieve is used under pressure to selectively remove nitrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and hydrocarbons from air, producing an oxygen rich (80–95 percent O2) feed gas. This method is similar in the quality of oxygen that would come from an oxygen cylinder. (pictured to the right above)
The two are not similar in the pressure that they can deliver. Compressed cylinders have a much higher pressure (PSI).

OXUS-8 oxygen concentrator

OXUS-8 oxygen concentrator

OX-8 oxygen concentrator

OX-8 oxygen concentrator

OG-15 oxygen concentrator

OG-15 oxygen concentrator

You can view the many different Oxygen Concentrators available or click on the displayed pictures above to view that select model.

The table below presents a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each gas feed system.

SOURCE

 

ADVANTAGES

 

DISADVANTAGES

 

Air (Dry)

 

Commonly used equipment, such as air compressor,
desiccant dryer, filters, etc.

 

More energy consumed per ozone volume
produced

 

Proven technology

 

Extensive gas handling equipment
required

 

Suitable for small and large
systems

 

Maximum ozone concentration of 3 – 4% by
weight

 

Oxygen

 

Higher ozone concentration
(8 – 16%)

 

Safety concerns

 

Approximately doubles the ozone output for the
same ozone generator

 

Oxygen resistant materials
required

 

Suitable for small and large
systems

 

 

NOTE: From the table above, you learned that “Dry Air” can give you up to 3-4% by weight of ozone gas, whereas oxygen will allow up to 16% by weight. That’s either 36.21 or 193.12 grams meter cubed. That is a big difference!
If you are asking, why is this? It is because Ambient Air contains only 19% oxygen.
Choosing the correct feed gas will also depend upon what your application is. Some applications will need High concentrations of ozone while others can be conducted with Lower ozone concentrations.

To learn more about the creation of ozone, or the products to do this, contact Ozone Solutions!

Is ozone a sterilizer, sanitizer, or an antimicrobial agent?

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 28, 2012 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

There are a few misconceptions out there about ozone.  One is what is it classified as by the USDA?  There are terms thrown out like sterilizer, sanitizer, antimicrobial, and even others, but what do all these mean?

The above terms are defined by the USDA with specific definitions.  The USDA Food Inspection Service is strict about the use of these terms to ensure all parties striving for food safety are “on the same page”.  Before implementing any technology be sure it meets the definitions outlined by the USDA.

Ozone USDA image

Sterilizers, sanitizers and antimicrobial agents are defined as follows:

Sterilizers – Technologies or techniques that totally remove microorganisms from a food product (heat, radiation, and ultra-high pressure)

Sanitize or Sanitizers – Technologies or techniques that consistently produce at least a 5 log reduction in microorganism population in a food product (products that contain perozides and/or chlorides and have been shown to provide 5 log microbe reductions)

Antimicrobial Agents – Technologies or techniques that provide at least a two log reduction in microorganism population in a food product (ozone, pressure washing, etc)

The table below shows a few technologies and the classifications given for each.

Technology Classifications
Heat Serilizer, sanitizer, and/or antimicrobial agent
Radiation Sterilizer
Ultra-high Pressure Sterilizer
Chemical Washes Usually Sanitizers
High-Pressure Washers Usually Antimicrobial
Chlorine Antimicrobial
Ozone Antimicrobial
UV Light Antimicrobial
Soap and Water Not Classified

Summary:

In most applications ozone will be considered antimicrobial as it will achieve a 2 log reduction or better in pathogens.  Depending upon application and use of ozone it is possible for ozone to be classified as a sanitizer or sterilizer, however it is important to remember that the definitions must be met for the given application prior that that classification being used.

Visit our main website for more information on ozone use for food processing.

Ozone Works in Hot Water

Posted by Scott Postma on January 25, 2012 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

There have been a lot of question about the efficacy of ozone in warm/hot water.  Yes – ozone does work in hot water!  See the supporting documentation below.

Ozone & Hot Water Use

 

EPA Chart showing log 4 virus inactivation with ozone vs. temperature

EPA Chart showing log 4 virus inactivation with ozone vs. temperature

 

R.N. Kinman (1975) & E. Katzenelson, et al. (1974) reported “As temperature increases, ozone becomes less soluble and less stable in water; however, the disinfection and chemical oxidation rates remain relatively stable.  Studies have shown that although increasing the temperature from 0 to 30 deg C can significantly reduce the solubility of ozone and increases its decomposition rate, temperature has virtually no effect on the disinfection rate of bacteria.”

In other words, the disinfection rate was found to be relatively independent of temperature despite the reduction in solubility and reduced stability at higher temperatures.

If hot water reduces the solubility of ozone, how is Ozone Solutions addressing the lower solubility issue?

Generating high ozone gas concentrations provides better ozone mass transfer into water.  We generate these high concentrations by:

  • using an oxygen concentrator to provide a 90% pure oxygen feed gas to the corona cell thereby increasing the generated ozone concentration
  • using a high-frequency ozone generator which can generate ozone concentrations in excess of 7% by weight

Contact Ozone Solutions at 712-439-6880 for more information.

How is Ozone Made? – 3rd Edition

Posted by Joel Leusink on January 17, 2012 under Ozone for Beginners | 6 Comments to Read

Here at Ozone Solutions we are commonly asked, How is Ozone Made?  I have created 2 previous posts covering ozone production in nature, and the basics of a corona discharge ozone generator.

In the previous post about how ozone is made we covered the basics of a corona discharge ozone generator.  In that post we pointed out that there are three main parts to a corona discharge ozone generator:

  • Power Supply – this edition
  • Dielectric
  • Corona Cell

Ozone Generator Power Supplies

In this article we will cover the differences in power supplies used for corona discharge ozone generators.  Also, the different parts that are involved in the power supply itself.  While some are very simple, other may be very complicated.  First, we have to cover the basics of what these power supplies do.

Transformer:

Corona discharge ozone generators operate on the principle of a high voltage spark across a dielectric to form a corona.  The main component to any corona discharge power supply is a transformer to increase voltage from the standard 120 or 220 VAC power used to a higher voltage ranging from 500 – 20,000 volts.  This high voltage will create the spark (corona) necessary for ozone generation.

line frequency ozone transformer

Open coil, Line Frequency, 20,000 Volt Transformers. Click on image to see ozone generators this may be used in.

The voltage used by an ozone generator is mainly dependent upon the dielectric and air gap in the corona cell.  If there is a larger gap for the spark/corona to jump, a higher voltage is needed.  Also, thicker and various types of dielectrics will require varying voltages.  We will cover dielectric and corona cell design in future installments of How Ozone is Made.

Another factor is frequency.  Higher frequency ozone generators (see below for info in frequency conversions) will typically use lower voltages as this is less stress on the frequency conversion components and smaller gap ozone generators are more conducive to higher frequencies.

10,000 volt oil filled ozone transformer

Oil Filled, 10,000 Volt, Line Frequency Transformer

Line frequency ozone generators may use a basic rheostat to adjust the voltage into the transformer.  This will in turn, adjust the output voltage of the transformer and adjust the rate of ozone production.  In these ozone generators only a transformer and rheostat are used, no other electrical devices are necessary for ozone production.

Click HERE for a video of a line Frequency ozone generator in action!

Rheostat adjusts ozone output on line frequency ozone generators

Line Frequency Ozone Generator Rheostat. The dial turns a sweeper on the bottom that will adjust input voltage to the transformer.

 

Medium frequency Transformer for ozone generation

Medium frequency ozone generator transformer

Some transformers may use a line choke, or a series of transformers to achieve a the voltage step-up necessary.  This is an example of a larger (~450 gram/hour) ozone generator transformer assembly.

ozone generator transformer

Oil filled, Medium frequency ozone generator operates at 1,000 Hz and ~600 volts

Many ozone generators used what is basically a car coil to increase voltage in an ozone generator.  When ozone generator design was still new there were very few choices for transformers that could endure the abuse of 1,000 Hz, elevated voltage, and changing variables inside a corona cell.  Today, transformer options are greater and the use of a basic car coil is becoming less common.

Ozone Transformer

High Frequency Ozone Transformer

Most high frequency transformers are much smaller, open coil type transformers.  This image is very typical for what may be used inside a higher frequency ozone generators.  This same style transformer is used in some medium frequency ozone generators.

Frequency Conversion:

The spark inside an ozone generator is generated from high voltages created by the transformer, these voltages are all AC (alternating current).  This means the electrical current  alternates direction.  This reversal of electrical current occurs at a constant speed we call frequency.  This is measured with Hz (hertz).  Here in the USA typical electrical power is delivered at 120 VAC 60 Hz.  This means the voltage is 120 volts of alternating current, that alternates 60 times per second.  In other countries power may be delivered at 220 VAC 50 Hz.

This explanation is all to understand that the spark or corona inside the ozone generator with no frequency conversion would occur 50 or 60 times every second.  Many of the earlier ozone generators, and some still today operate at line frequency, an unaltered frequency.  This is generally referred to as a line frequency ozone generator.

Other ozone generators use a higher frequency to increase ozone output.  Higher frequencies would create more spark/corona every second.  There are three main types of ozone generators:

  • Line Frequency – 50-60Hz
  • Medium Frequency – 100 – 2,000 Hz
  • High Frequency – 5,000 – 30,000 Hz
Ozone Generator power supply

Medium frequency ozone generator power supply provides ~1000 Hz output

This circuit board is the driver board for a car coil type transformer as seen in the image above.  This is a great example of how simple the circuitry may be in a typical medium frequency ozone generator.

High Frequency Ozone Generator Power Supply

High Frequency ozone generator power supply, up to 30,000 Hz output

This is the power supply for a larger (up to 450 gram/hour) high frequency ozone generator.  This power supply can supply an output of up to 30,000 Hz, or as low as 1,000 Hz.  As you can see this power supply is much more circuitry and components are used to achieve these higher frequencies and flexibility.

Medium frequency Ozone Generator power supply

Medium frequency ozone generator power supply provides ~1,000 Hz output

This power supply is for a larger (up to 400 gram/hour) medium frequency ozone generator.

Putting it all together

There are many different types of ozone generator power supplies for many different applications.  Each serves a unique purpose in the ozone generation world.  Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Line Frequency Ozone Generators (50-60 Hz)

Line frequency ozone generators commonly use larger transformers and voltages from 10,000 – 20,000 volts.  The only other electrical component for operation is a rheostat as pictures above.  These are very simple and reliable setups that perform well for many years.  Absolutely nothing beats the reliability of a line frequency ozone generator.

As the components on most line frequency ozone generators are larger to achieve the same ozone output the costs for the transformer and rheostat are higher than the costs for the smaller transformers and simple printed circuit boards used for medium frequency ozone generators.  Also, line frequency ozone generators cannot achieve near the performance as the higher frequency ozone generators.

Medium Frequency Ozone Generators (100 – 2,000 Hz)

Clearwater transformer and driver

Medium frequency ozone generator transformer, with driver board.

Medium frequency ozone generators are most common today.  These ozone generators may produce 1 gram/hour to thousands of pounds/day of ozone.  The image above is a simple printed circuit board to increase line frequency to about 1,000 Hz, this board is attached right to the transformer that increase voltage to about 1000 volts.  This is an older design with a oil filled automotive style coil. however this is a good example of the typical size of power supply for a 5 – 20 gram/hour ozone generator.  There may be multiple power supplies powering multiple corona cells in one ozone generator to produce more ozone.  This is a very compact, cost effective, and efficient method to produce ozone.

While medium frequency ozone generators are fairly simple there are still more components than a line frequency ozone generator.  This means there are more things to fail and cause problems.  Due to the elevated frequency these generators also produce more heat, both in the electronics and corona cell.  Heat is the enemy of ozone.

Medium frequency ozone generators are also louder than others.  While this may not be a large concern in every application, at some frequencies there is a high pitched whine that is not acceptable in some occupied spaces.

High Frequency Ozone Generators (5,000 – 30,000 Hz)

Complete high frequency ozone generator power supply

High Frequency ozone generator power supply with transformer

High frequency ozone generators offer very compact designs due to smaller transformers and corona cells.  As the spark/corona is occurring up to 30,000 times per second the need for a large air gap and high voltage are alleviated.  In return the electronic circuit board becomes the largest, and most expensive component of some high frequency ozone generators.  This is illustrated very well in the above image.  This shows 3 power supply circuit boards with the small transformer mounted right to the circuit board!

High frequency ozone generators may be very energy efficient and compact in size allowing for a very flexible platform to either use multiple cells for redundancy or other configuration changes.  Many high frequency ozone generators are very cost effective as the large parts that carry a higher price (transformer and corona cell) are smaller, while the circuit board and electronics are more elaborate.

High frequency ozone generators contain many components that may fail.  They also produce a great deal of heat due to the high frequency.  However, with the very high frequency there is no audible sound from the ozone generators, they are the most silent of all types.  Many manufacturers have just begun implementing more high frequency components in the last 5 years.  Expect big changes in the future in this area of ozone generation.

This covers the basics of ozone generator power supplies.  I promise the following editions of How Ozone is Made will be shorter and less technical.

The next edition of How Ozone Is Made will cover Corona Cell design in Corona Discharge Ozone Generators.

If you have any questions about ozone generators, or what may be best for you, call our application engineers today!  We are glad to answer questions, dispel myths, and be a general information source for your ozone related questions.