Chicken Poultry processing – Food Safety Prevention against E.coli & Coliform Bacteria includes Ozone application!

Posted by Becky on April 13, 2012 under Ozonated Water, Ozone Food Processing | Be the First to Comment

Countless unfounded articles have been written to alarm (scare) the public into not consuming meat products such as chicken. Food preparation is the key to safe consumption (Cooked properly) but did you know?

Meat packers, poultry chicken producers also take advanced precautionary methods to control cross contamination (such as fecal matter- coliform bacteria) during production process, adhering to strict USDA regulation and guidelines.  (HACCP, FSIS, FDA, SQF) to identify food safety hazards.

Processing lines are equipped with antimicrobial intervention steps from CIP – Clean in place a process that continually sanitize production lines, to directly applied antimicrobial wash applications of whole chickens & parts (Wings, breast meat, legs (drum sticks) and thighs. New more innovative poultry/chicken meat processors are incorporating 100% sustainable (chemical Free) pathogen destruct systems like Ozone O3.

New technology and advance science has made this possible. Ozone in a very powerful natural pathogen that kills E.coli, Salmonella, listeria and an army of other germs/bacteria’s yet reverts back to its natural state.

From the farmer to the delicious chicken on your table, chicken meat processors are diligent in providing safe quality products.

See Poultry Applications in use >> Click Here >>  (Poultry HACCP Applications)

Glen Holsather

VP of Business Development

Ozone Solutions

712-439-6884 x196


Egg layer producers boost HACCP / SQF Food Safety Plans to lower chemical cost and gain the benefits of economics of scale by discovering Ozone applications.

Posted by Becky on April 10, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Read the First Comment

A new generation of Egg Producers and processors are pursuing advance HACCP {Hazard Analysis Critical control Points} planning and rigorous third party inspections such as SQF “Safe Quality Foods” to guarantee consumer food safety.  Inspiring proactive quality assurance teams to leverage new technologies to enrich existing food safety programs and recognize the benefits of “economics of scale”.  Applying cost reduction measures and improved processes to lower or eliminating chemical costs and extend the supply chain life cycle.

An advanced, state of the art new technology widely accepted by food processors is aqueous and ambient air (gas) Ozone generating systems, a very powerful and safe natural oxidant that replaces a host of chemicals.

The Ozone advantage begin with an four (4) point feed water benefit, starting with an (1) sanitizer killing viruses and parasites (2) eliminating odors (3) clarifying the color (4) better tasting feed water that leads to increased consumption and healthier poultry.

Harvesting, applied antimicrobial egg washing using ozone aqueous injection system replaces the traditional chemical systems with the added benefit of 100% sustainable (green technology) with no chemical residue left over on the shell of the egg.

CIP (Clean-In-Place) Exiting harvesting operations use a series of system to clean and sanitize their feed water systems and layer housing units.   Feed water lines are flushed out with high volumes of water, citric acids or equivalent and high concentration of chlorine to flush out bio-films & calcium deposits.  This method of cleaning can lead to a biological digestive track health issue.  Using ozone consistently in your feed water system eliminates the need for high chemical concentrations and reduces the amount of water used to flush out a feed water system.

CIP Poultry house rotational cleaning,  Ozone is used as the finishing sanitizer – disinfectant that does not harm layers, yet is a very strong disinfectant against Salmonella and other pathogens.

Gaseous Ozone, applications of warehousing and storage facilities is utilized as an antimicrobial interventions, mold and fungal step.

Egg layer and processors are moving forward with new technologies to gain a competitive advantage and improve customer food safety.

Glen Holsather ~ Ozone Solutions
VP of Business Development
712-439-6884 ext. 196
712-441-7152 Cell









^ click for enlarged version


Is ozone a sterilizer, sanitizer, or an antimicrobial agent?

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 28, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Be the First to Comment

There are a few misconceptions out there about ozone.  One is what is it classified as by the USDA?  There are terms thrown out like sterilizer, sanitizer, antimicrobial, and even others, but what do all these mean?

The above terms are defined by the USDA with specific definitions.  The USDA Food Inspection Service is strict about the use of these terms to ensure all parties striving for food safety are “on the same page”.  Before implementing any technology be sure it meets the definitions outlined by the USDA.

Ozone USDA image

Sterilizers, sanitizers and antimicrobial agents are defined as follows:

Sterilizers – Technologies or techniques that totally remove microorganisms from a food product (heat, radiation, and ultra-high pressure)

Sanitize or Sanitizers – Technologies or techniques that consistently produce at least a 5 log reduction in microorganism population in a food product (products that contain perozides and/or chlorides and have been shown to provide 5 log microbe reductions)

Antimicrobial Agents – Technologies or techniques that provide at least a two log reduction in microorganism population in a food product (ozone, pressure washing, etc)

The table below shows a few technologies and the classifications given for each.

Technology Classifications
Heat Serilizer, sanitizer, and/or antimicrobial agent
Radiation Sterilizer
Ultra-high Pressure Sterilizer
Chemical Washes Usually Sanitizers
High-Pressure Washers Usually Antimicrobial
Chlorine Antimicrobial
Ozone Antimicrobial
UV Light Antimicrobial
Soap and Water Not Classified


In most applications ozone will be considered antimicrobial as it will achieve a 2 log reduction or better in pathogens.  Depending upon application and use of ozone it is possible for ozone to be classified as a sanitizer or sterilizer, however it is important to remember that the definitions must be met for the given application prior that that classification being used.

Visit our main website for more information on ozone use for food processing.

Research on Ozone use for Listeria Reduction

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 21, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | 2 Comments to Read

Listeria and Ozone Papers

We have assembled some research on the use of ozone specifically for L. monocytogenes. This research is below, we have provided the white paper title, author, and abstract for your review, along with a link to the full paper for your use.

If you have any further questions on the use of ozone for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes, or any other pathogen, please contact our application engineers today.

Efficacy of Ozone in Killing Listeria monocytogenes on Alfalfa Seeds and Sprouts and Effects on Sensory Quality of Sprouts

Source: Journal of Food Protection: Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 44-51.

Authors: W. N. Wade (a, b); A. J. Scouten (a, b); K. H. McWatters (b); R. L. Wick (c); A. Demirci (d); W. F. Fett; and L. R. Beuchata (b)

  1. Center for Food Safety, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797[PARA]
  2. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Georgia 30223-1797[PARA]
  3. Department of Microbiology, 639 Pleasant Street, Morrill Science Center IV-N203, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9298[PARA]
  4. d. Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Life Sciences Consortium, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802[PARA] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern Regional Research Center, Food Intervention and Technology Research Unit, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA


A study was done to determine the efficacy of aqueous ozone treatment in killing Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Reductions in populations of naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on sprouts and changes in the sensory quality of sprouts were also determined. The treatment (10 or 20 min) of seeds in water (4°C) containing an initial concentration of 21.8 ± 0.1 g/ml of ozone failed to cause a significant (P 0.05) reduction in populations of L. monocytogenes. The continuous sparging of seeds with ozonated water (initial ozone concentration of 21.3 ± 0.2 g/ml) for 20 min significantly reduced the population by 1.48 log10 CFU/g. The treatment (2 min) of inoculated alfalfa sprouts with water containing 5.0 ± 0.5, 9.0 ± 0.5, or 23.2 ± 1.6 g/ml of ozone resulted in significant (P 0.05) reductions of 0.78, 0.81, and 0.91 log10 CFU/g, respectively, compared to populations detected on sprouts treated with water. Treatments (2 min) with up to 23.3 ± 1.6 g/ml of ozone did not significantly (P > 0.05) reduce populations of aerobic naturally occurring microorganisms. The continuous sparging of sprouts with ozonated water for 5 to 20 min caused significant reductions in L. monocytogenes and natural microbiota compared to soaking in water (control) but did not enhance the lethality compared to the sprouts not treated with continuous sparging. The treatment of sprouts with Ozonated water (20.0 g/ml) for 5 or 10 min caused a significant deterioration in the sensory quality during subsequent storage at 4°C for 7 to 11 days. Scanning electron microscopy of uninoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts showed physical damage, fungal and bacterial growth, and biofilm formation that provide evidence of factors contributing to the difficulty of killing microorganisms by treatment with ozone and other sanitizers.

Inactivation of Escherichia coli O1 57:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Lactobacillus leichmannii by combinations of ozone and pulsed electric field.

Authors: Unal R, Kim JG, Yousef AE.

Source: J Food Prot. 2001 Jun;64(6):777-82.

Publisher: Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.


Pulsed electric field (PEF) and ozone technologies are nonthermal processing methods with potential applications in the food industry. This research was performed to explore the potential synergy between ozone and PEF treatments against selected foodborne bacteria. Cells of Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 4797, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were suspended in 0.1% NaCl and treated with ozone, PEF, and ozone plus PEE Cells were treated with 0.25 to 1.00 microg of ozone per ml of cell suspension, PEF at 10 to 30 kV/cm, and selected combinations of ozone and PEF. Synergy between ozone and PEF varied with the treatment level and the bacterium treated. L. leichmannii treated with PEF (20 kV/cm) after exposure to 0.75 and 1.00 microg/ml of ozone was inactivated by 7.1 and 7.2 log10 CFU/ml, respectively; however, ozone at 0.75 and 1.00 microg/ml and PEF at 20 kV/cm inactivated 2.2, 3.6, and 1.3 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Similarly, ozone at 0.5 and 0.75 microg/ml inactivated 0.5 and 1.8 log10 CFU/ml of E. coli, PEF at 15 kV/cm inactivated 1.8 log10 CFU/ml, and ozone at 0.5 and 0.75 microg/ml followed by PEF (15 kV/cm) inactivated 2.9 and 3.6 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Populations of L. monocytogenes decreased 0.1, 0.5, 3.0, 3.9, and 0.8 log10 CFU/ml when treated with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 microg/ml of ozone and PEF (15 kV/cm), respectively; however, when the bacterium was treated with 15 kV/cm, after exposure to 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 microg/ml of ozone, 1.7, 2.0, and 3.9 log10 CFU/ml were killed, respectively. In conclusion, exposure of L. leichmannii, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes to ozone followed by the PEF treatment showed a synergistic bactericidal effect. This synergy was most apparent with mild doses of ozone against L. leichmannii.

Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms by Ozone, Chlorine, and Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Robbins Justin B.; Fisher Christopher W.; Moltz Andrew G.; Martin Scott E.

Source: Journal of Food Protection®, Volume 68, Number 3, March 2005 , pp. 494-498(5)

Publisher: International Association for Food Protection


This study evaluated the efficacy of ozone, chlorine, and hydrogen peroxide to destroy Listeria monocytogenes planktonic cells and biofilms of two test strains, Scott A and 10403S. L. monocytogenes was sensitive to ozone (O3), chlorine, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Planktonic cells of strain Scott A were completely destroyed by exposure to 0.25 ppm O3 (8.29-log reduction, CFU per milliliter). Ozone’s destruction of Scott A increased when the concentration was increased, with complete elimination at 4.00 ppm O3 (8.07-log reduction, CFU per chip). A 16-fold increase in sanitizer concentration was required to destroy biofilm cells of L. monocytogenes versus planktonic cells of strain Scott A. Strain 10403S required an ozone concentration of 1.00 ppm to eliminate planktonic cells (8.16-log reduction, CFU per milliliter). Attached cells of the same strain were eliminated at a concentration of 4.00 ppm O3 (7.47-log reduction, CFU per chip). At 100 ppm chlorine at 20°C, the number of planktonic cells o L. monocytogenes 10403S was reduced by 5.77 log CFU/ml after 5 min of exposure and by 6.49 log CFU/ml after 10 min of exposure. Biofilm cells were reduced by 5.79 log CFU per chip following exposure to 100 ppm chlorine at 20°C for 5 min, with complete elimination (6.27 log CFU per chip) after exposure to 150 ppm at 20°C for 1 min. A 3% H2O2 solution reduced the initial concentration of L. monocytogenes Scott A planktonic cells by 6.0 log CFU/ml after 10 min of exposure at 20°C, and a 3.5% H2O2 solution reduced the planktonic population by 5.4 and 8.7 log CFU/ml (complete elimination) after 5 and 10 min of exposure at 20°C, respectively. Exposure of cells grown as biofilms to 5% H2O2 resulted in a 4.14-log CFU per chip reduction after 10 min of exposure at 20°C and in a 5.58-log CFU per chip reduction (complete elimination) after 15 min of exposure. the potential synergy between ozone and PEF treatments against selected foodborne bacteria. Cells of Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 4797, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 35150, and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A were suspended in 0.1% NaCl and treated with ozone, PEF, and ozone plus PEE Cells were treated with 0.25 to 1.00 microg of ozone per ml of cell suspension, PEF at 10 to 30 kV/cm, and selected combinations of ozone and PEF. Synergy between ozone and PEF varied with the treatment level and the bacterium treated. L. leichmannii treated with PEF (20 kV/cm) after exposure to 0.75 and 1.00 microg/ml of ozone was inactivated by 7.1 and 7.2 log10 CFU/ml, respectively; however, ozone at 0.75 and 1.00 microg/ml and PEF at 20 kV/cm inactivated 2.2, 3.6, and 1.3 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Similarly, ozone at 0.5 and 0.75 microg/ml inactivated 0.5 and 1.8 log10 CFU/ml of E. coli, PEF at 15 kV/cm inactivated 1.8 log10 CFU/ml, and ozone at 0.5 and 0.75 microg/ml followed by PEF (15 kV/cm) inactivated 2.9 and 3.6 log10 CFU/ml, respectively. Populations of L. monocytogenes decreased 0.1, 0.5, 3.0, 3.9, and 0.8 log10 CFU/ml when treated with 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 microg/ml of ozone and PEF (15 kV/cm), respectively; however, when the bacterium was treated with 15 kV/cm, after exposure to 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 microg/ml of ozone, 1.7, 2.0, and 3.9 log10 CFU/ml were killed, respectively. In conclusion, exposure of L. leichmannii, E. coli, and L. monocytogenes to ozone followed by the PEF treatment showed a synergistic bactericidal effect. This synergy was most apparent with mild doses of ozone against L. leichmannii.

Effect of Ozone and Ultraviolet Irradiation Treatments on Listeria monocytogenes Populations in Chill Brines

Author: Govindaraj Dev Kumar

Date Created: November 19, 2008


The efficacy of ozone and ultraviolet light, used in combination, to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in fresh (9% NaCl, 91.86% transmittance at 254 nm) and spent chill brines (20.5% NaCl, 0.01% transmittance at 254 nm) was determined. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize parameters for the ozonation of “fresh” and “spent” brines. These include diffuser design, comparison of kit to standard methods to measure residual ozone, studying the effect of ozone on uridine absorbance and determining presence of residual listericidal activity post ozonation.An ozone diffuser was designed using 3/16 inch PVC tubing for the ozonation of brines. The sparger was designed to facilitate better diffusion and its efficiency was tested. The modified sparger diffused 1.44 ppm of ozone after 30 minutes of ozonation and the solution had an excess of 1 ppm in 10 minutes of ozonating fresh brine solution (200ml). Population levels of L. monocytogenes were determined at various time intervals post-ozonation (0, 10, 20, 60 min) to determine the presence of residual listericidal activity. The population post ozonation (0 minutes) was 5.31 Log CFU/ml and was 5.08 Log CFU/ml after a 60 minute interval. Therefore, residual antimicrobial effect was weak. Accuracy of the Vacu-vial Ozone analysis kit was evaluated by comparing the performance of the kit to the standard indigo colorimetric method for measuring residual ozone. The kit was inaccurate in determining residual ozone levels of spent brines and 1% peptone water. Uridine was evaluated as a UV actinometric tool for brine solutions iii that were ozonated before UV treatment. The absorbance of uridine (A262) decreased after ozonation from 0.1329 to 0.0512 for standard 10 minutes UV exposure duration. Absorbance of uridine was influenced by ozone indicating that the presence of ozone may hamper UV fluence determination accuracy in ozone-treated solutions. Upon completion of diffuser design and ozone/UV analysis studies, the effect of ozone-UV combination on L. monocytogenes in fresh and spent brines was evaluated. Ozonation, when applied for 5 minutes, caused a 5.29 mean Log reduction while 5 minutes of UV exposure resulted in a 1.09 mean Log reduction of L. monocytogenes cells in fresh brines. Ten minutes of ozonation led to a 7.44 mean Log reduction and 10 minutes of UV radiation caused a 1.95 mean Log reduction of Listeria in fresh brine. Spent brines required 60 minutes of ozonation for a 4.97 mean Log reduction in L. monocytogenes counts, while 45 minutes resulted in a 4.04 mean Log reduction. Ten minutes of UV exposure of the spent brines resulted in 0.30 mean Log reduction in Listeria cells. A combination of 60 minutes ozonation and 10 minute UV exposure resulted in an excess of 5 log reduction in cell counts. Ozonation did not cause a sufficient increase in the transmittance of the spent brine to aid UV penetration but resulted in apparent color change as indicated by change in L*a*b* values. Ozonation for sufficient time had considerable listericidal activity in fresh brines and spent brines and when combined with UV treatment, is effective reducing L. monocytogenes to undetectable levels in fresh brines.

Click here for the paper.

Effectiveness of Ozone in Inactivating Listeria monocytogenes from Milk Samples

Authors: Mariyaselvam Sheelamary, Muthusamy Muthukumar

Affiliations: Division of Environmental Engineering and Technology Department of Environmental Sciences Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, INDIA

Accepted: June, 2011

Publisher: World Journal of Life Sciences and Medical Research 2011;1(3):40-4.


Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes using ozonation was studied in raw milk and various branded milk samples in and around Coimbatore city. Total of 20 milk samples were obtained from super markets and other places. The PALCAM agar was used in the study to enumerate L. monocytogenes from raw milk and various branded milk samples. Results indicate that all the samples are positive prior to the ozonation process. A controlled flow rate 0.5 m/l of oxygen was used to produce 0.2g/h of ozone. The milk samples were ozonated at 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes. After treatment the samples are inoculated and L. monocytogenes were enumerated by using listeria PALCAM agar. After 15 minutes ozonation L. monocytogenes were completely eliminated from milk samples. Before and after ozonation the samples were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and calcium content. After treatment the nutritional values were slightly different in the milk samples..

Click here for the paper.

Inactivation Kinetics of Foodborne Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria by Ozone

Authors: J.G. Kim and A.E. Yousef

Keywords: fluorescens, L. mesenteroides, and L. monocytoge


Ozone was tested against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Listeria monocytogenes. When kinetic data from a batch reactor were fitted to a dose-response model, a 2-phased linear relationship was observed. A continuous ozone reactor was developed to ensure a uniform exposure of bacterial cells to ozone and a constant concentration of ozone during the treatment. Survivors plots in the continuous system were linear initially, followed by a concave downward pattern. Exposure of bacteria to ozone at 2.5 ppm for 40 s caused 5 to 6 log decrease in count. Resistance of tested bacteria to ozone followed this descending order: E. coli O157:H7, P.

Click here for the paper.

Influence of Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase on Ozone Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes

Authors: Christopher W. Fisher, Dongha Lee, Beth-Anne Dodge, Kristen M. Hamman, Justin B. Robbins, and Scott E. Martin

Publication Details: Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois. Received 20 September 1999/Accepted 6 January 2000


The effects of ozone at 0.25, 0.40, and 1.00 ppm on Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated in distilled water and phosphate-buffered saline. Differences in sensitivity to ozone were found to exist among the six strains examined. Greater cell death was found following exposure at lower temperatures. Early stationary-phase cells were less sensitive to ozone than mid-exponential- and late stationary-phase cells. Ozonation at 1.00 ppm of cabbage inoculated with L. monocytogenes effectively inactivated all cells after 5 min. The abilities of in vivo catalase and superoxide dismutase to protect the cells from ozone were also examined. Three listerial test strains were inactivated rapidly upon exposure to ozone. Both catalase and superoxide dismutase were found to protect listerial cells from ozone attack, with superoxide dismutase being more important than catalase in this protection.

For more Listeria information see this page on our website here


Pork producers improving HACCP plans with Ozone Applications Safe Food Processing

Posted by Becky on March 6, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Be the First to Comment

Pork Processor share in a very competitive market, driven by food safety, quality, and demand planning and price point.  In addition pork processors are challenged with developing and adhering to strict FDA, USDA and State regulations.

QA management teams strive for excellence, identifying new technologies to enhance existing HACCP & Safe Food Practices.  Ozone is the new antimicrobial intervention step. Ozone has been in a constant state of development for the past decade, advances in science and improved technology has brought Ozone to the forefront of pork processing technology.   {Please see the HACCP example below} or click here to access >>  Pork HACCP Applications

The applications are abundant, beginning with the receiving/holding phase thru the full body & Evisceration cavity antimicrobial wash to the “Chilling – Ozone Misting” to “Storage – Ambient Air/gas systems”, all the way to the processed packaged retail cuts, extending the supply chain shelf life cycle.

Applied ozone as an antimicrobial intervention works replacing or eliminating chemicals reducing operational cost.   Ozonated recycled denatured water is also used “for example” in CIP as a receiving and holding washout stage a value added HACCP step.

Ozone is an excellent application to improve your HACCP & Food safety Plan.

Author:  Glen Holsather

Ozone Solutions

Pork Producers Ozone HACCP Plan

Pork Processors HACCP









Click here for your pdf copy >> (Pork HACCP Applications)


Ozone Instantly Destroys Pathogens on Lettuce

Posted by Scott Postma on February 28, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Be the First to Comment

Strickland Produce of Nashville, TN successfully implemented ozone into their vegetable processing facility.  Ozone, a powerful micro-biocide, destroyed natural pathogens found on lettuce and fresh greens.  Ozone was integrated into flume water and resulted in significant savings.  The savings resulted from reduced chlorine usage and reduced labor costs associated with changing the flume water.

Lettuce & Carrots after Ozone Treatment

Lettuce & Carrots after Ozone Treatment

Using a microbiocide, such as ozone, is important for the treatment of lettuce because lettuce can be consumed raw.  Therefore, if proper pathogen treatment is omitted, or improperly implemented, during the processing steps, there is the chance that humans will come into contact with pathogens such as e-coli O157:H7.  Using ozone can significantly reduce this risk.

Below is a paper on the successful implementation of ozone at Strickland Produce.

Additional Ozone Benefits

  • 60% water savings on 2 treatment lines
  • reduced cooling water costs
  • reduced labor associated with water change-out

Strickland Produce estimated the ozone treatment system had a 21 month payback not including lower refrigeration costs, lower wastewater discharge costs and increased production.


Contact Ozone Solutions to learn more.
888-892-0300 (USA only)

Ozone HACCP – Implementing Ozone into your Beef processing HACCP Program

Posted by Becky on February 24, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Read the First Comment

Today’s meat packing and processing industry is continuously evolving, seeking new innovative solutions that reduce cost, improve quality and extends the supply chain shelf life cycle.  While the Plant Management and Quality Assurance professionals have an increasing responsibility of improving production levels, they also have the delicate balancing act of complying with USDA and FDA regulations.  Meat packing “Beef” Industry leaders have found a cost effective method to improve their HACCP  “Hazards Analysis Critical Control Points  Plan.  The implementation of OZONE!

The HACCP application of Ozone begins with the Pre-mortem receiving/holding  “See the illustration below” progressing to the post mortem phase, antimicrobial wash of Carcass – aging – storage to the Primal & Sub-primal cuts then retail prepackaged cuts.  Trimmings are also treated with antimicrobial Ozone wash just before the ground beef grinding process.  Click here to see >> (Beef Processing Applications) or read below

Ozone HACCP applications encompass a complete implementations plan from the initial Antimicrobial wash, to the chilled water misting and ambient air “cooler” aging process, to packaged ready to ship products, transportation systems and CIP – Clean In Place applications.

Ozone, simply put, works with a 99.99% log 4 pathogen destruction rate with a host of applications and 100% sustainable, ozone is the right choice.


Ozone HACCP Beef

Implementation of Beef Processing Ozone HACCP plan

Click Here for a pdf copy >> (Beef Processing Applications)

Ozone HACCP meat processing



Author: Glen Holsather  712-441-7152

Can ozone be used directly on food? What are the regulations?

Posted by Joel Leusink on February 20, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Be the First to Comment

Ozone has been granted GRAS approval by the USDA and FDA for direct contact with food. This is a big step that was achieved in 2001. We are commonly asked about these regulations. Below is a brief overview of all the regulations and where you can find the specific regulations directly from the USDA and FDA.

USDA and FDA Ozone Regulations

United States Department of AgricultureOzone has been given GRAS approval by the USDA and the FDA for direct contact with food products, including all meat and poultry products. While good manufacturing procedures must be in place, no regulations exist on levels of ozone in food processing applications. The final rule from the FDA providing GRAS approval was given in 2001, the USDA followed with the final rule granting GRAS approval for ozone in 2002. References for all these actions, along with the specific rules are provided below.

A brief history of ozone use in the food industry:

1957 – Ozone in the gaseous form was approved for the storage of meat by the USDA.

March 12, 1975 – FDA recognized ozone treatment to be a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for the bottled water industry. The minimum ozone treatment for GMP is “0.1 part per million (0.1 mg/l) of ozone in water solution in an enclosed systems for at least 5 minutes.” Code 21 of Federal Regulations, Section 129.80 d.4 Federal Register 11566, 12 March 1975.

June 14, 1997 – A panel of experts from food science, ozone technology, and other related fields has declared Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status for ozone use in food processing.

This panel of experts was requested by the Energy Power Research Institute (EPRI). It is well worth mentioning that the EPRI was very instrumental in achieving GRAS approval for the use of ozone in food applications. Read below an excerpt from the EPRI Global Handbook from 2004:

In 1999, recognizing that the 1982 ruling created confusion among the food processors, the FDA encouraged EPRI’s FTA to pursue the development and submission of a Food Additive Petition (FAP) that would allow the use of ozone as a contact antimicrobial agent in food. Petitioners D.M. Graham of EPRI and R.G. Rice of RICE International Consulting Enterprises completed the FAP and submitted it to the FDA in August 2000. After an expedited and rigorous review by the FDA staff, the FDA recognized ozone as an antimicrobial agent suitable for use in Food Processing and Agricultural Production. Notice of this recognition appeared in the Federal Register, June 26, 2001.


USDA final rule on ozone dated 12/17/2002, FSIS Directive 7120.1
Safe and suitable ingredients used in the production of meat and poultry

FSIS Directive 7120.1 States:
Ozone for use on all meat and poultry products.
Ozone can be used in accordance with current industry standards of good manufacturing practice. No other guidelines are given on levels or dosages of ozone.
Reference 21 CFR 173.368

USDA CFR 173.368

Ozone (CAS Reg. No. 10028—15—6) may be safely used in the treatment, storage, and processing of foods, including meat and poultry (unless such use is precluded by standards of identity in 9 CFR part 319), in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is an unstable, colorless gas with a pungent, characteristic odor, which occurs freely in nature. It is produced commercially by passing electrical discharges or ionizing radiation through air or oxygen. (b) The additive is used as an antimicrobial agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(2) of this chapter. (c) The additive meets the specifications for ozone in the Food Chemicals Codex, 4th ed. (1996), p. 277, which is incorporated by reference. The Director of the Office of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20055, or may be examined at the Office of Premarket Approval (HFS—200), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 200 C St. SW., Washington, DC, and the Office of the Federal Register, 800 North Capitol St. NW., suite 700, Washington, DC. (d) The additive is used in contact with food, including meat and poultry (unless such use is precluded by standards of identity in 9 CFR part 319 or 9 CFR part 381, subpart P), in the gaseous or aqueous phase in accordance with current industry standards of good manufacturing practice. (e) When used on raw agricultural commodities, the use is consistent with section 201(q)(1)(B)(i) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) and not applied for use under section 201(q)(1)(B)(i)(I), (q)(1)(B)(i)(II), or (q)(1)(B)(i)(III) of the act.

USDA Guidance on Ingredients and sources of radiation used to reduce microorganisms on carcasses, ground beef, and beef trimmings:

Ozone is classified a Secondary direct food additive/processing aid allowable for all meat and poultry products.

FDA Federal Register Vol. 66 No.123 June 26, 2001

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the food additive regulations to provide for the safe use of ozone in gaseous and aqueous phases as an antimicrobial agent on food, including meat and poultry. This action is in response to a petition filed by the Electric Power Research Institute, Agriculture and Food Technology Alliance.

This rule is effective June 26, 2001.

The April 13, 1998 FDA Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, states that “Ozone treatment of wash and flume waters holds promise as a treatment to control microbial build-up, especially in recycled water.”
However, with regard to chlorine: “Fruit and vegetable tissue components and other organic matter neutralize chlorine rendering it inactive against microorganisms.”
Full details are available here: Guidance for Industry

National Organic Program and Ozone

For specific information on the acceptable uses for ozone in organic food processing applications refer to our National Organic Program page.

Information on ozone products that can be used and information can be found by contacting our office or browsing the ozone products on our website.

How does ozone reduce Listeria?

Posted by Joel Leusink on February 9, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | Read the First Comment

Ozone use for the inactivation of listeria

Listeria 1

Listeria is a common term to refer to a specific strain of bacteria species. There are seven (7) known species of Listeria. The specific species L. monocytogenes is the cause of Listeriosis, a serious infection caused by eating food contaminated with this strain of bacteria. This disease can be deadly and will pose a greater risk to those with weakened immune system. Both L. monocytogenes, and Liseteriosis, are commonly known only as Listeria, and Listeria illness.

Listeria is found in soils, this can lead to fruit and vegetable contamination. Listeria can also be found in all types of meat products, milk, and eggs. Higher risk foods are any uncooked or undercooked foods, unpasteurized milk, raw vegetables, and some ready-to-eat foods.

Click here to learn more about Listeria from the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention).

Ozone can be used for the reduction, or elimination of L. monocytogenes on food products. Since achieving GRAS approval for the use of ozone for direct contact with food in 2001 the use of ozone for the elimination of L. monocytogenes has increased significantly.

To eliminate Listeria or any other bacteria with ozone successful implementation of ozone is necessary. While every application is different, there are a few fundamentals that will apply in most applications.

Implementation of Ozone

Aqueous Ozone

The most common method of using ozone for pathogen reduction is by dissolving ozone into water. Aqueous ozone is very stable, safe, and easy to manage. Typically, ozone is dissolved into water using an Ozone Injection System and then sprayed onto the surface requiring disinfection. This surface may be a hard equipment surface, or the surface of a food product.


In 2000, the Journal of Food Science published a paper by Kim & Yousef showing the effect of dissolved ozone in a batch reactor on Listeria monocytogenes. Dissolved ozone at 0.4 and 0.8 ppm inactivated 4.6 and 5.7 log CFU/ml within 30 seconds. Additional tests were run at higher dissolved ozone levels. Higher dissolved ozone levels did show faster (immediate) inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes.

Dissolved ozone can be sprayed on food and produce using spray bars, or other spraying methods. Conveyers work well to allow the sufficient contact time, and offer full coverage of the aqueous ozone. It is important that all of the produce is contacted by the aqueous ozone to achieve desired antimicrobial intervention. Contact times can be varied by altering conveyer speeds, spray tip design, and spray bar design/quantity. If water is already used in an application to wash produce it is very simple to add ozone to this water and achieve an antimicrobial intervention step without any major changes to the current processes.

Gaseous ozone

The use of gaseous ozone for the elimination of pathogens is less common. There is less research showing the effects of gaseous ozone on bacteria. The application of gaseous ozone is dependent upon the temperature, humidity, contact time, and ozone levels. Research has been conducted to determine that gaseous ozone will reduce and inactivate L. monocytogenes; however, more research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of ozone within different variables.

Listeria 2

Produce in need of disinfection can be placed in chambers, rooms, or even cargo containers for ozone treatment. A sealed area that can contain the produce and ozone gas while maintaining human safety will work. It is necessary to assure sufficient air movement past each piece of produce. Ozone levels from 1.0 — 100 ppm are used in this application with contact times from 20 minutes to 10 hours. For more information on the potential of using gaseous ozone in your application contact our application engineers today.

Click here for more information and to view ozone research papers on this topic

Ozone use in organic food production

Posted by Joel Leusink on February 6, 2012 under Ozone Food Processing | 3 Comments to Read

Ozone use in the production of organic food

Organic food products are gaining popularity throughout the world. As concerns from potentially harmful chemicals, hormones, and other synthetic based products grow, the allure of organic foods continues to increase. Organic foods are typically foods that are grown without pesticides, herbicides, chemicals, or growth hormones. This means the food you are eating is more natural and free of synthetic products.

USDA LogoThe National Organic Program (NOP) was established by the USDA to create rules and guidelines to ensure that organic labeled foods are truly organic. The NOP is responsible for administrating and enforcing the regulatory framework for the national organic standards. The NOP regulations cover in detail all aspects of food production, processing, delivery, and sale. There are three levels of organic foods.

  • 100% Organic — Products made entirely with certified organic ingredients and methods
  • Organic — Products with at least 95% organic ingredients
  • Made with organic ingredients — Products containing a minimum of 70% organic ingredients

USDA Logo 2

Only foods that are categorized as 100% Organic, or Organic (95%), are allowed to display the USDA Organic label on the product to consumers.

There are various regulations and rules that will dictate what ingredients can be used for organic food products. Ozone can be used in some organic applications, but not all. The regulations are sometimes hard to find and not in one central location. Below are a few locations in the organic registry where ozone is listed.

Ozone as an ingredient:

Ozone can be used as an ingredient in organic foods. However, these foods will not be able to maintain a 100% organic rating. They will only be allowed an Organic, or Made with organic ingredients label.

Ozone used with Fruit

This information can be found in CFR 205.605

USDA wording from CFR 205.605

§ 205.605 Nonagricultural (nonorganic) substances allowed as ingredients in or on processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).”

The following non-agricultural substances may be used as ingredients in or on processed products labeled as “organic” or “made with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s))” only in accordance with any restrictions specified in this section.

Ozone is listed in this section follow link below:

Ozone in crop production:

Ozone can be used in the production of crops. Ozone is considered a synthetic substance and regulated as such in crop production. Ozone is allowed for cleaning of irrigation systems only. Provided ozone is used in this manner, all crops will maintain 100% organic rating.


This information can be found in CFR 205.601

USDA wording from CFR 205.601

§ 205.601 Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic crop production.

In accordance with restrictions specified in this section, the following synthetic substances may be used in organic crop production: Provided that, use of such substances do not contribute to contamination of crops, soil, or water. Substances allowed by this section, except disinfectants and sanitizers in paragraph (a) and those substances in paragraphs (c), (j), (k), and (l) of this section, may only be used when the provisions set forth in §205.206(a) through (d) prove insufficient to prevent or control the target pest.

Ozone gas — for use as an irrigation system cleaner only.

Link to this section below:


Ozone in production surface sanitation:

Ozone can be used in food processing, distribution, and retail centers as a surface sanitation on food contact surfaces. This is referenced in CRF 205.605, however it is made clear in the following document:

USDA wording from: The USDA National Organic Program Requirements for Food Retailers and Distribution Centers

The regulations identify some chlorine materials that may be used to sanitize food-contact surfaces, including calcium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and sodium hypochlorite; hydrogen peroxide and ozone are also permitted. See 7 C.F.R. 205.605.

beef2Link to this entire document below:

These are the regulations within the NOP that contain ozone. Unfortunately at this time the USDA and the NOP have not given ozone the same latitude it has in other food processing environments similar to the GRAS approval for direct contact with food ozone was given by both the USDA and FDA. We are hopeful that in time, the USDA will allow the use of ozone in more organic applications. As ozone is produced from oxygen, and quickly returns to oxygen after oxidation of potentially deadly pathogens we feel that ozone should be given a greater role in the production of safe 100% organic foods.

Should you have any questions about the use of ozone in your organic growing application, please feel free to contact Ozone Solutions’ Application Engineers, we would be glad to discuss the potential solutions we can offer your application.

See this full webpage on our website at our organic growing with ozone page