The fumonisins are environment toxins produced primarily by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. There are at least 28 different forms of fumonisins, most designated as A-series, B-series, C-series, and P-series. Fumonisin B1 is the most common and economically important form, followed by B2 and B3. Fumonisins can occur in crops but corn is the most commonly contaminated crop by Fumonisin.
Fumonisin-producing Fusarium fungi causes a disease in maize known as Fusarium ear rot. Because of the health risk the FDA has regulated Fumonisins for human food or livestock consuption. The following table shows FDA acceptable Fumonisin level for human consumption :
Mekenzie et al. have checked the effect of ozone on Fumonisin reduction. Their result revealed that most of the Fumonisin was eliminated in 15 second using gaseous ozone.
A good review of ozone application for mycotoxin removal has been presented by Silve et al. .
Ozone Solutions offers a service to treat corn per bushel. Also we are offering customized ozone systems based on the process/barn. Ozone Solutions also offers Fumonisin tests in its state of the art lab.
Author: Reza Zahedi
. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ChemicalContaminantsMetalsNaturalToxinsPesticides/ucm109231.htm, accessed Jan 2016.
. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9350226, accessed Jan 2016.
. Otniel Freitas-Silva and Armando Venâncio, “Ozone applications to prevent and degrade mycotoxins: a review”, Drug Metabolism Reviews, Volume 42, Issue 4, 2010.
Ozone bubbles are used these days in several applications, but Ozone nano-bubbles can be used to purify water, improve the vitality of fish, animals, and plants. It could also contribute to solving problems associated with biology, medicine, and food in the future. The secret is behind the high surface area of the nano-bubbles, which provides high mass transfer rates compared to traditional bubbles.
Ozone nano-bubble technology can purify waste water from the polymerized toner production process by using energy derived from the bursting of fine ozone bubbles (below 300 nano-meters in diameter). Water treated through this technology can be reused in the production process, thus providing a closed water recycling system. In this case, the process will save noticeable amount of money and energy in waste water treatment of polymerized toner production.
Nano-bubble ozonation of oyster will eliminate 99 percent of the calicivirus in oyster. Ozone nano-bubbles are very effective and are a new horizon in ozone technology. Contact us today if you think this could be a very promising solution for your operation.
Chlorine is widely used in sanitation of poultry operations. However, chlorine generates several by-products that are proven to be harmful from a food safety and environmental point of view. The search for alternatives to chlorine in poultry operations, particularly in the chiller, is of interest to the poultry industry. Using ozone in the poultry operation is a great solution. Poultry processing plants use large volumes of water and the cost of obtaining and disposing it is increasing rapidly. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point quality control procedures, introduced recently, have increased the water usage and compounded the situation. The cost of electrical energy for cooling chiller water is another major concern. The volume of ozonated water is 30% less than volume of chlorinated water . Ozone does not produce halogenated organic compounds that are harmful to health and, in this case, Ozone is the best solution for poultries who seek to be ORGANIC poultries.
Ozone can be sprayed at several points during poultry processes including; washing the cutting machines, conveyors, and chilled rooms. It can also be sprayed on the carcasses. Ozone eliminates odor, biofilm, while also significantly reducing fats, oils, and grease on all surfaces. In this case ozone is not only a safe disinfectant, which will be turned into oxygen at the end of process, but it is considered a Sustainable Disinfectant.
. Applications of Ozonation and Membrane Treatment in Poultry Processing, final report, 400-02-023F, Public Interest Energy Research Program California Energy Commission, Jan. 2002.
Read full article HERE
By Jan Suszkiw
March 13, 2014
Sometimes even honey bees need help with “housekeeping,” especially when it comes to cleaning their honeycombs once the honey’s been removed. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) research has shown that fumigating honeycombs with ozone gas can eliminate pests and pathogens that threaten honey bee health and productivity. Now, ozone fumigation may also help reduce pesticide levels in honeycombs.
The findings come from a two-part study led by entomologist Rosalind James with the Pollinating Insects-Biology, Management, and Systematics Research Unit operated in Logan, Utah, by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS). Results from the first part of her team’s study, published in 2011 in the Journal of Economic Entomology, demonstrated that fumigating honeycombs with ozone gas at concentrations of 215 to 430 parts per million (ppm) killed all life stages of the greater wax moth, depending on length of exposure.
Read more about these findings at the ARS site HERE
Read full article HERE
Chlorine is the traditional go-to option for sanitation in food plants because of its effectiveness and low cost and despite chlorine’s potential health risks. Handling any powerful oxidizer requires care, however, and that discourages many food processors to explore alternatives such as aqueous ozone and ozone gas.
Ozone is widely used in municipal wastewater treatment, but it was off limits for food processors after the Food Additive Amendment of 1958 failed to include it in a list of approved chemicals. The omission was an oversight, ozone proponents maintain, and extensive research and lobbying was needed before federal regulators allowed its use, first for food-surface sanitation, then in direct contact with food.
Suppliers of ozone generators were euphoric in June 2001 when FDA lifted restrictions on ozone’s use. The decision was a response to a petition led by the Electric Power Research Institute, which liked the idea of a sanitizer that requires consumption of electricity.
But manufacturers are reluctant to change processes that work, and most ozone vendors came and went to pursue more promising avenues, such as swimming pool disinfection. Misapplication also retarded acceptance: Overdosing of water for equipment cleaning generated complaints of pitting of stainless steel, and poultry processors seeking high log reductions on chicken carcasses discovered oxidation could react with lipids and create rancidity issues.
Ozonated water is applied to fish at Albion Fisheries prior to packaging and frozen distribution.
Ozone is inherently unstable, with the three oxygen elements seeking stability by attaching to carbon, hydrogen and other atoms. Albion’s system generates ozone at a 1.5 ppm ratio; when it reaches the point of use, the concentration is 1.2 ppm, and within 30 seconds it completely dissipates, according to Uddin. Residual amounts become airborne at less than 0.3 ppm, enough to knock out any yeast and mold but not enough to affect human health. “It’s almost like a sterilized plant,” he adds. “Health inspectors have commented that there is no fish smell in the building.”
Read full article HERE
For more information on the use of ozone in food processing follow the link below:
Ozone in food processing
O.C. Schulz moves to ozone water cleaning
- by Tad Thompson | December 10, 2013
- see original story HERE
This fall, O.C. Schulz & Sons, Inc., the potato grower-packer-shipper located in Crystal, ND, installed an ozone generator for its grader’s wash line. The new system cleanses the company’s grading water system with ozone, as a contribution toward food safety.
David Moquist, the firm’s secretary-treasurer, expects the ozone water treatment to also extend his potatoes’ shelf life. “They say this will keep them fresher and have a longer shelf life. It’ll be hard to back that up until we see this in action,” he said in early November, as the system’s finishing touches went into place.
Moquist said his firm “is not by any means on the forefront on food safety.” Other companies that have more retail customers have more quickly gone in that direction. “We are trying to do what’s doable as we can.”
Schulz’s primary customer base is wholesalers and repackers, who are generally located from Texas, eastward.
As O.C. Schulz graded potatoes in November, Moquist described the spuds as having “nice color and being pretty good.”
Schulz’ potato volume was “little below average” this fall. “There is less tonnage than last year, but the grade is better.” Thus, he said the company’s total volume packed this year “may be close in the long run,” compared to a year earlier. “Until we get into it, we won’t know for sure.”
Moquist said all but one or two sheds in the Red River Valley have decreased volume from last year.
see original story HERE
Ozone water cleaning for potatoes
Ozone can be dissolved into water with an ozone injection system and be used in most any potato or other vegetable washing applications. See more information on the use of ozone in food processing at the link below:
Ozone in food processing
Fun fun video of the day. This is a great little video from ABC news from a few years ago about the use of ozone in food processing:
Even a cameo from the great Dr. Dee Graham! How cool is that?
Click HERE For more information aobut ozone in food processing.
A new paper was just published by Ozone Science and Engineering, the publishing arm of the International Ozone Association, on the use of ozone to extend the shelf life of strawberries.
Role of Ozone Concentrations and Exposure Times in Extending Shelf Life of Strawberry
Author: Mehmet Seçkin Aday, Mehmet Burak Büyükcan, Riza Temizkan & Cengiz Caner
Efficiency of three aqueous ozone concentrations (0.075 ppm, 0.15 ppm, 0.25 ppm) and two exposure times (2 and 5 minutes) were investigated for maintaining strawberry quality. Exposure to 0.075 ppm and 0.15 ppm ozone delayed the changes in pH, total soluble solids, firmness and electrical conductivity. All ozone treatments prevented mold growth during storage. However, the 0.25 ppm ozone treatment caused loss of strawberry quality due to high ozone concentration. The results have shown that; low (0.075 ppm) and middle (0.15 ppm) ozone concentrations can be applied to extend the shelf-life of strawberries by at least three weeks under refrigerated conditions.
Get full paper HERE
This paper is another great example of ozone use in food storage and food processing.
Benefits of Ozone Use in Cold Storage
- Extend shelf-life of the produce within the cold storage facility.
- Air-borne microbiological control
- Low ozone levels (<0.3 PPM) will inhibit microbiological growth in the air.
- High ozone levels can be used for disinfection when room is empty.
- Surface sanitation can be maintained
- By inhibiting microbiological growth pathogens on the surface of produce, containers, and walls will be kept to a minimum.
- Eliminate mold growth from cold storage area.
- Odor control
- Maintain an odor-free cold storage area
- Keep odors from cross contaminating between products
Methods of Ozone Application
- Ozone gas can be distributed throughout a cold storage facility at low levels.
- Ozone-sterilized ice is used to pack fresh fish and seafood to prolong freshness.
- Ozone gas is used in meat coolers to inhibit microbiological growth and extend shelf life.
- Ozone is dissolved into water to wash fruits and vegetables and remove mold and bacteria.
- Low levels of ozone gas can be used in containers to prolong shelf life upon delivery.
- Dissolved ozone is used to wash meat and poultry to remove bacteria and extend refrigerated shelf life.
Ozone in the Food Industry
Because ozone is a safe, powerful disinfectant, it can be used to control biological growth of unwanted organisms in products and equipment used in the food processing industries. Ozone is particularly suited to the food industry because of its ability to disinfect microorganisms without adding chemical by-products to the food being treated, or to the food processing water or atmosphere in which food are stored.
Scientists have discovered why fruit and vegetables last longer after being exposed to ozone.
Previous research revealed that exposing a tomato plant to environmental stresses such as a wound, drought or extreme temperature causes an increase in certain proteins.
The study, published in Postharvest Biology and Technology, explored the impacts of ozone on the amounts of certain proteins – called the protein profile – were present in a tomato fruit, to try and unravel why low levels of ozone gas can protect fruit and vegetables from disease, and increase their shelf life.
See full article HERE:
Learn more about ozone and food storage HERE
Ozone Generator for your Fridge
Ozone reduces fungicide residues on grapes
What is better than juicy red grapes sliced and sprinkled atop a leafy salad? Or what warms your heart more than seeing your child devour cluster after cluster of the succulent berries on a Saturday afternoon? After all, it’s not just a burst of sweetness that grapes offer with every bite–their flesh is saturated with vitamins C and K; their seeds, with antioxidants. So eating a lot of grapes is a good thing, right?
Yes and no. While it’s true that grapes ARE loaded with nutrients, it’s also a fact that they are exposed to chemicals–a LOT of chemicals. Grapes and their vines are fragile, and without the aid of modern agricultural pesticides and fungicides, those pretty grapes you feed to your children would have died and turned to compost long before making it to your kitchen table.
So how do we assist the survival of the grapes, and yet avoid ingesting those chemicals? This is where ozone steps in. A recent study shows that exposing grapes to ozone can reduce grapes’ fungicide residue.
In this study, a research team ran a trial to see if ozone exposure would increase the breakdown of fungicide residue on “Thompson Seedless” table grapes.
The grapes in the trial were treated with various fungicides. The grapes were then put into storage for 36 days. During the storage period, the control group was exposed to zero ozone. The trial group was exposed constantly to 0.3 PPM ozone.
While common grape fungicides do naturally break down over time, the study found that ozone helped several of the fungicides break down more rapidly. At the end of the 36 day trial period, the grapes in the control group still had 59.2% of the fungicide residue present. The grapes exposed to ozone, on the other hand, had only 35.5% of their fungicide residue remaining.
Further study is needed to determine if the chemicals resulting from the reaction between the fungicides and ozone cause negative health effects. In the meantime, though, ozone beckons as a hopeful assistant in keeping our grapes as clean and healthy as possible.
Link here to the original article, written by Emanuela Fontana. You can also purchase the complete study, published by the scholarly journal Postharvest Biology and Technology.