Noroviruses are the major etiological agent of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide and are transmitted via fecal-oral route. As important waterborne and food-borne pathogens, they are included on the U.S. EPA Contaminant . Water can be contaminated by Norovirus containing feces released from either symptomatic or asymptomatic patients. Noroviruses have been linked to many waterborne disease outbreaks in the U.S. They have been detected in sewage effluent and in ambient water .
Noroviruses cause a gastroenteritis, which usually lasts 24 to 48 hours. Symptoms include vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.
Owing to its high effectiveness of ozone as a strong oxidant and lack of residue after disinfection, ozone can be used for both surface and groundwater disinfection. Several studies have proven ozone effectiveness on removing the Norovirus. It has been shown that ozone eradicates the Norovirus.
More than 99% of the Norovirus can be inactivated by ozone at 1 mg/liter within 2 min .
. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Feb. 2010, p. 1120–1124, accessed August 2015.
. Parshionikar, S.U., S. Willian-True, G.S. Fout, D.E. Robbins, S.A. Seys, J.D. Cassady, and R. Harris. “ Waterborne outbreak of gasteroenteritis associated with a norovirus”, Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69(9):5263-5268, 2003.
. Mi Young Lim, Ju-Mi Kim, Jung Eun Lee, and GwangPyo Ko, “Characterization of Ozone Disinfection of Murine Norovirus”, APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, , p. 1120–1124, 2010.
For this week’s Wednesday Weekly Product to Watch, we will be taking a look at the bench top model ozone machine called the HP-500.
This product has been recently added to our small ozone machines line up, and we have received a number of good responses from our customers about its welcomed functionality and performance!
Since this model features a digital logic control, it provides you with an incremental timer complete with an “On” or “Timer Bypass” setting. The logic also enables you to adjust the ozone output from 100% down to 40%. The machine has both input and output ports.
The machine features both an inlet and an outlet connection port. The included “Air Drier” can be connected to the inlet port, using the provided flexible tubing. This air dryer not only removes moisture from the air, making the generator suitable for operating in humid environment, but also raises its ozone output. But that is not all!
The machine also comes complete with a built in air pump (2-3 PSI @ a flow rate of 1-2 LPM).
This built in motive force allows you to use this machine for many applications because of its “All built into one” approach!
Since it comes with a built in air pump, it would not be complete without a bubbler diffuser stone. In fact, we provide you two of them in case you want to use each diffuser for different purposes or applications!
Washing foods with ozonated water, Aquarium or Koi ponds, and removing odors from an air space containing a cat litter box, etc.
This model presents a very good value, (I did list most of its built-in capabilities) and is very easy on your pocket book at around $150!
For more complete information or to purchase it, please go to the product link below;
Ozone bubbles are used these days in several applications, but Ozone nano-bubbles can be used to purify water, improve the vitality of fish, animals, and plants. It could also contribute to solving problems associated with biology, medicine, and food in the future. The secret is behind the high surface area of the nano-bubbles, which provides high mass transfer rates compared to traditional bubbles.
Ozone nano-bubble technology can purify waste water from the polymerized toner production process by using energy derived from the bursting of fine ozone bubbles (below 300 nano-meters in diameter). Water treated through this technology can be reused in the production process, thus providing a closed water recycling system. In this case, the process will save noticeable amount of money and energy in waste water treatment of polymerized toner production.
Nano-bubble ozonation of oyster will eliminate 99 percent of the calicivirus in oyster. Ozone nano-bubbles are very effective and are a new horizon in ozone technology. Contact us today if you think this could be a very promising solution for your operation.
Christmas is over, and the family is gone, or is most likely leaving soon. Want a little help with cleaning after Christmas?
One of the common themes at our family gatherings is sharing of food from many homes and spreading common illnesses. It seems the week after Christmas the stomach flu and other ailments run rampant. If you feel your house is not home to bacteria, viruses, and pathogens that just don’t belong, we might be able to help.
Using this bottle is easy. Fill it with pure water, let the batter charge with the plug-in charger, and spray aqueous ozone on surfaces! This device uses an electrolytic ozone generator to produce ozone directly in the water and pray that water on surfaces.
Now you have the power to disinfect countertops, door knobs, even couch cushions or carpet. After all, after the ozone has killed all the bacteria it reverts to harmless water and oxygen!
This article is intended to answer, how do venturi injectors work to dissolve ozone into water? Ozone is a gas, therefore proper gas/liquid contact mechanisms are critical to efficient system design. A popular method for adding the ozone gas into water is through the use of Venturi Injectors. Venturi Injectors work by forcing water through a conical body. This action creates a pressure differential between the fluid inlet and outlet ports, which in turn creates a vacuum inside the injector body. This vacuum now allows the ozone gas to be added into the flowing water stream via the suction port on the injector.
Venturis require a constant pressure differential to
initiate ozone injection (15 PSI in this example).
Very high ozone mass transfer rate (up to 98% if pressurized, 50-70% w/out pressure)
Minimal maintenance required
More controlled & consistant over time
Works well in both pressurized and unpressurized fluid streams
Requires energy from a booster pump, or pressurized water supply to achieve the 98% transfer otherwise can give you 50-70%
Tiny air bubbles (white) can be seen mixed with the water.
Water, moving from left to right, through a conical body creates suction which pulls air/ozone into the water stream.
A very high liquid to gas ratio is required to achieve 98% mass transfer efficiency. In fact, the ratio required would
not be economical. Typical mass transfer efficiencies for Venturi Injectors are from 50-70% (without the use of pressure).
ALEXANDRIA, Va. — The Drinking Water Research Foundation has released the results of a review paper entitled “Microbial Health Risks of Regulated Drinking Waters in the United States,” according to a press release.
The paper compares the risk of public drinking water and bottled water using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and presentations from a 2009 drinking water symposium at Yale University, the release reported.
According to the release, the paper explores the difference in quality monitoring, regulatory standards violations, advisories and distribution system conditions for tap and bottled water.
The key finding of the paper was that, “it is clear that as a consequence of the differences in regulations, distribution systems, operating (manufacturing) practices and microbial standards of quality, public drinking water supplies present a substantially higher human risk than do bottled waters for illness due to waterborne organisms.”
While tap water is regulated by the EPA, bottled water is regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is more stringent in regulations concerning lead, coliform bacteria and E. coli, according to the release.
The research is fascinating as it does refute other data claiming that bottled water is less safe than public water supplies. Below is an excerpt from the conclusion paragraph of the review paper:
A comparison of waterborne illness outbreaks reveals overwhelming evidence that the microbial health risks associated with drinking tap water are far greater than that of bottled water, with 195 million illnesses in the past 10 years for tap water compared to fewer than a dozen for bottled water
This research and information is good news for the bottled water industry that has been hammered by negative press in recent years. Hopefully the bottled water industry will use this research to help promote the benefit of drinking quality bottled water as opposed to public water supplies.
As you may know, ozone has been used in the bottled water industry for many years to provide safe, high quality bottled water. Read more about ozone in bottled water on our website here, and see below:
Bottled Water and Ozone
A fast-acting and effective treatment technology, ozone is now used in a variety of potable water treatment applications. Ozone treatment is becoming widely used for bottled water in North America — now the most rapidly growing market for ozone.
Ozone Benefits for the Beverage Market
Ozone is superior to any other disinfection method because of its high oxidation state.
Ozone allows for lower operating costs and reduces overall chemical costs.
Ozone is not typically associated with by-products, and naturally reverts to oxygen, so no taste or odor is associated after its use.
Ozone is generated on-site. Therefore no dangerous storage or handling is required.
The International Bottled Water Association (IBWA) suggests a residual ozone level of 0.2 to 0.4 ppm. This provides disinfection to both the water and the bottle.
Destroying bacteria instantly, ozone works faster than any other oxidant on the market!
Occasionally our customers will need to measure levels of ozone greater than 3 ppm with their K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit. To do so, the sample can be diluted, allowing up to 6 ppm of indication.
The video and instructions here, in combination with the standard kit instructions, will allow you to do this in the most effective way possible.
1) Add 5 drops of A-7400 Activator Solution to the sample cup.
2) Add 12.5 mL of distilled water to the sample cup.
3) Add enough sample to the cup to bring the volume to the 25 mL mark
4) Snap the ampoule in the cup, and continue with the standard instructions.
Find the result indicated by your comparator and multiply that value by 2.
The number you get is your dissolved ozone concentration.
For further details about the K-7404 dissolved ozone test kit, or our other dissolved ozone monitors, please visit the links below!
Ozone Solutions has created a new video that illustrates proper use of our K-7404 Dissolved Ozone Test Kit. If you are curious about how these vacu-vial test kits work, this video will walk you through the process and show you the simple steps involved.
For more information about the K-7404 or any of our other dissolved ozone test kits, visit the product pages here!
There are constant microbiological threats in our daily lives; unfortunately, our drinking water and the recreational water that we play in are not excluded from where these threats reside. Among those preying on unsuspecting humans is the protozoan parasite — cryptosporidium (crypto). Crypto is one of the toughest microbes faced in water treatment, however, by the power of the molecule, ozone can eliminate it.
Ozone, molecularly known as O3, is a sanitizer and is relentless in its attack of organic microbes (bacteria, viruses, cysts, etc). Through a process known as lysing, ozone breaks down cell walls or membranes, where it can then destroy the nucleus of the microbe. In addition to sanitation, ozone is well known for the oxidizing of inorganic material that could be present in water, such as metals (e.g., iron and manganese). Although there are a few stronger oxidizers, ozone is the strongest that is readily available for commercial or residential use (see Figure 1). In fact, it is 1.5 times stronger than chlorine and many times faster acting. While leaving no off tastes, chemical by-products or residues, ozone is widely used in bottled water plants, wineries, breweries and food processing plants all over the world. Furthermore, because of this higher oxidation strength, ozone cannot build up a tolerance to microbes unlike other sanitizers, such as chlorine.
Did you know the most common industrial use for ozone is drinking water?
If you are new to the world of ozone it may surprise you how prevalent the use of ozone is throughout the United States. Today, there are more than 280 major water treatment plants in the United States that incorporate the use of ozone in their processes. It is projected that by 2015 the number of plants using ozone will reach 300. There is a very good chance that the water you are drinking has been treated with ozone prior to your consumption.
Ozone use in drinking water has has been prevalent throughout the world since the early 1900’s. Ozone was initially used in the United States in 1940 in Whiting, IN for water disinfection in the water treatment process. From there, the use of ozone in drinking water has expanded to its’ current wide usage throughout the United States today. In 1982, ozone was given GRAS approval for use in bottled water. This opened up the use of ozone for disinfection in the bottled water industry. Today, the majority of bottled water companies use ozone to ensure pure water that is pathogen free for consumers. Read more about ozone use in bottled water .
Looking ahead, ozone may also be used for the removal of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals in the water, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors. Ozone is currently used in waste-water disinfection for these purposes and it is possible the use of ozone will be carried over into drinking water plants in the future.
A few examples of large U.S. Cities using ozone today are below:
This Ozone Journal is a blog managed by the employees of Ozone Solutions. The purpose of this blog is to inform and educate the readers about the world of Ozone, provide news about the ozone industry, and have an easy opportunity to inform about new ozone products.
Check back often, ask questions, and let us know if there is anything you would like to hear about.
What is ozone?
Ozone is an oxidant. Ozone (O3), sometimes called “activated oxygen", or "triatomic oxygen", contains three atoms of oxygen rather than the two atoms we normally breathe. Ozone is the second most powerful oxidant in the world and can be used to destroy bacteria, viruses, and odors.
Ozone is a gas at ambient temperatures and pressures with a strong odor. Ozone can be produced as a gas from oxygen in air, or concentrated oxygen. This ozone gas can be dissolved into water, or used in the gas phase for a variety of applications discussed in this Journal.