Using Ozone for Fumonisin Elimination

Posted by Cade Kats on January 12, 2016 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

The fumonisins are environment toxins produced primarily by Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum. There are at least 28 different forms of fumonisins, most designated as A-series, B-series, C-series, and P-series. Fumonisin B1 is the most common and economically important form, followed by B2 and B3. Fumonisins can occur in crops but corn is the most commonly contaminated crop by Fumonisin.

Fumonisin-producing Fusarium fungi causes a disease in maize known as Fusarium ear rot. Because of the health risk the FDA has regulated Fumonisins for human food or livestock consuption. The following table shows FDA acceptable Fumonisin level for human consumption [1]:


rotten grilled corn with fungus

Mekenzie et al. have checked the effect of ozone on Fumonisin reduction. Their result revealed that most of the Fumonisin was eliminated in 15 second using gaseous ozone.

A good review of ozone application for mycotoxin removal has been presented by Silve et al. [3].

Ozone Solutions offers a service to treat corn per bushel. Also we are offering customized ozone systems based on the process/barn. Ozone Solutions also offers Fumonisin tests in its state of the art lab.




Author: Reza Zahedi


[1]., accessed Jan 2016.

[2]., accessed Jan 2016.

[3]. Otniel Freitas-Silva and Armando Venâncio, “Ozone applications to prevent and degrade mycotoxins: a review”, Drug Metabolism Reviews, Volume 42, Issue 4, 2010.

Effect of Ozone on Killing Larvae in Stored Grains

Posted by Cade Kats on October 16, 2015 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

Ozone is a very strong oxidant which is able to kill the insects’ larvae in the grain. It is based on our several years of selling the systems to grain remediation industry [1] and research for effective ozone level to remediate different grains.

Larvae in the grain not only pose health risks to the consumers but they cause grain losses between 9-20 percent and sometimes in underdeveloped counties it reaches 100 percent of the stored grains.

Common insecticides leave traces on the grain. Some of them also are not able to eradicate the larvae. For example Hansen et al. have found that in some insect species, including the most economically valuable ones such as the grain weevil, the adults live freely among the kernels, while eggs, larvae and pupae live concealed inside the kernels [2].

Ozone not only eradicates larvae but it has capability of removing mold, aflatoxin, vomitoxin, and mycotoxin in grains [3].

By being a strong green disinfectant, with high insect and larvae eradication capability ozone indeed is the best choice for grain remediation.

Please do not hesitate to contact us for any question regarding your grain remediation.










[2]., accessed Oct 2015.

[3]. .

Ozone for Stored Grain Fumigation

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on March 13, 2015 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

Grain Remediation is a growing topic and rightfully so.  Chemicals like phosphine and methyl bromine are heavily used to protect stored grains from pests. Because of concerns on using chemicals in the post-harvest stage there have been several non-chemical pest control techniques. Use of temperature, heat treatment, and physical exclusion have been among these non-chemical alternatives.

Ozone is among the green non-chemicals which reduces mold spores in grain and kills stored product insects. Ozone reduces mycotoxins and different toxins in the grain and makes them safe for human and animal consumption [1]. Ozone reverts back to oxygen when it is used in grain storage so there is no residue or remnants of ozone on the grain. Ozone is generated on site so there is no need for a storage tank. For a suitable ozone concentration, contact time is the key for the ozone fumigation process to be successful.

If you want to learn more about how you can keep you high yields in your grain storage facility, contact us at 1.712.439.6880 or email at




Degradation of Aflatoxin in Corn using Ozone gas

Posted by Joel Leusink on May 4, 2013 under Grain & Feed Remediation | 2 Comments to Read

Ozone use for the degradation of aflatoxin in corn has become quite popular recently.  There is a-lot of interest into the potential of ozone in this application.  There is a great deal of data available that does prove that ozone will destroy aflatoxin.


Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin that is produced by a fungus (aspergillus).  In climates where mold may grow on grain while it is growing in the field high levels of aflatoxin on grain may be an issue.  Aflatoxin is a pathogen that can cause health issues in both humans and animals.  The FDA has established action levels for Aflatxin for human and animal consumption that rage from 20 – 300 ppb.

With the rising prices of corn and other commodities the practical removal of unsafe levels of aflatoxin can be a necessary part of cost effective agriculture.

While there is a fair amount of lab data available, actual real-life data on the use of ozone to remove aflatoxin in corn, is not shared as much as other application.  Recently we worked with a customer that did share the following information.

He used a 300 g/hr ozone generator on 6 bushels of corn for 2 hours of time.  This reduced the aflatoxin levels from 58 ppb to 2 ppb.  In further testing he was able to scale this to larger volumes of grain with lower ozone levels and longer periods of time.  Thus, showing the potential of ozone use in a grain bin on a large scale over numerous days of ozone treatment.  Also, he found that corn with higher levels of moisture showed improved results vs dry corn.

In addition to this data, we are currently in the process of building an ozone trailer with the capacity of 2,500 g/hr ozone generation for a customer in Indiana.  This was secured after numerous on-site pilot tests with ozone were performed with ozone rental equipment.

On a large scale ozone gas can be introduced into the a grain bin aeration system.  We have found that higher ozone concentrations have better results, and that the grain should be mixed or agitated during the process to ensure that all of the contaminated corn is contacted with ozone gas.

For additional information review the links below for technical papers on this topic:

Evaluation of Aflatoxin-Related products from Ozonated Corn

Efficacy and safety evaluation of ozone to degrade aflatoxin in corn

 Ozone has also proven effective removing aflatoxin from other foods.  More papers linked below:

Ozone used for reduction of aflatoxin in peanuts

Ozone used for reduction of aflatoxin in pistachios

Ozone used for reduction of aflatoxin in cottonseed and peanut meal


 To learn how we can put our experience to use for you, contact us today.

How ozone is used in the Milling Industry

Posted by Joel Leusink on October 30, 2011 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

Ozone use in Milling Applications

The use of ozone in milling application has grown substantially since 1997 when ozone was first allowed in food processing applications. There are many areas of use for ozone in the milling industries and as research continues new uses will surely follow.

Overview of ozone use in milling applications

  • Ozone is an oxidant used for antimicrobial and pathogen control in many food processing applications.
  • Ozone was first allowed in food processing in 1997 with limited application.
  • Ozone was given GRAS approval by both the FDA and the USDA in 2001.
  • Ozone use in milling has been growing with ongoing research in many areas.

Applications of ozone in milling applications

There are many uses for ozone in the milling industry. While some research is on-going, below is a list of industrial applications where ozone has been used with success.

  • Aqueous ozone is used in the grain temper process to inactivate mold and bacteria at the first point of the milling process.
  • Ozone gas is used with dry milled product for antimicrobial intervention in process.
  • Ozone gas is used for surface sanitation of enclosed equipment.
  • Ozone gas is used in conveyors and transport equipment in process as an antimicrobial intervention point between process steps.

Ozone use in temper process

  • The temper process adds water to the grain.
  • Many grains are tempered to increase the moisture content of the grain prior to milling.
  • Ozone can be dissolved into the water that is soaked into the grain.
  • Most pathogens are found on the exterior of the grain.
  • Fewer pathogens are found within the grain.
  • Ozone use in the temper process lowers all pathogen levels in the beginning of the milling process.

Details of ozone use in temper process

Water used in tempering process passes through an ozone injection system to provide aqueous ozone at very high dissolved ozone levels. A minimum of 10 ppm of dissolved ozone is used to ensure residual aqueous ozone can soak completely through the outer later of the grain. Ozone half life in water is 20 minutes in 20-deg C water. After 60 minutes ozone level in water may still be above 2.0 ppm. Aqueous ozone at 2.0 ppm is sufficient for antimicrobial intervention. Aqueous ozone at 2.0 ppm will achieve a four (4) log reduction of bacteria in one (1) second of contact time

Waterzone-80Ozone Injection System to provide Aqueous ozone for temper use
Waterzone-80Ozone Injection System to provide Aqueous ozone for temper use

Ozone gas use in milling (ozone gas used on milled grain products in process)

  • Sealed mixers can be used to mix ozone gas and milled grains (flour, bran, etc.)Mixers commonly used to inject chlorine gas or other chemicals could be used to apply ozone gas to the milled grain. Contact times greater than 30 seconds at ozone levels greater than 20 ppm will achieve excellent reductions in pathogens.Sealed Mixer
  • Ozone can be introduced into pneumatic or mechanical conveyors to disinfect grain in processConveyers that are used to transport milled grains from one location to another can be used to apply ozone gas to the grain. This is an efficient and convenient method of applying ozone gas to the grain.
  • Equipment can be sanitized by ozone gas disinfectionMilling equipment can be sealed and exposed to high levels of ozone gas. Ozone gas at effective levels for pathogen reduction can be used in these applications to safely reduce pathogens without the use of chemicals or residuals.
  • Ozone gas requires more contact time and higher levels than aqueous ozone.

Practical Information

  • The use of ozone in milling has shown increased reduction of bacteria, yeast, and mold reduction over time.Due to cross contamination, residual mold spores, and residual pathogens; mold and bacteria counts in the final product are not dramatically improved immediately. However, over time the mold and bacteria counts are lowered with the use of ozone in process.
  • Customers have commented on reduction and complete elimination of mold growth in sifters and other equipment throughout the milling process.
  • Shelf life of of some milled products has increased dramatically due to lower bacteria and mold counts.


IOA User Success Report — Harvest States Amber Milling, Huron, OH

  • Ozone was used in temper process to replace chlorine.
  • APC bacteria reduction of 75-80% using ozone, compared to chlorine.
  • After months of operation further reduction of bacteria (up to 95%) was achieved.

Influence of Tempering with Ozonated Water on the selected properties of wheat flour — Dept of Food Engineering, Univ of Gaziantep — Senol Ibanoglu (Oct 14, 2000)

  • Aqueous ozone at 1.5 and 11.5 ppm were tested.
  • No physical properties or baking quality changes were found.
  • Statistically significant reduction in total bacteria and yeast/mold population was found at both ozone levels.

A Comparison between Chlorinated Water and Ozonated Water as an Antimicrobial Treatment during Tempering of Wheat — ASABE Meeting Presentation

  • Ozonated water did not have any effect on the color and germination capacity of wheat grains.
  • Ozonated water significantly lowered the yeast/mold counts in durum and hard red spring wheat.

View this application page on our website HERE

Ozone can make corn grow faster?

Posted by Joel Leusink on May 19, 2011 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

It is corn planting season here in Iowa. In honor of this, I though I would share the following. A paper was written recently on the effect of corn seed germination after exposure to ozone.

Effect of Oxidative Treatment on Corn Seed Germination Kinetics
Authors: Freacutedeacuteric Violleaua; Kheira Hadjebaa; Joël Albetbc; Roland Cazalisa; Olivier Surela

Corn seeds were treated with high purity oxygen ([O3] = 0 g/m3) and oxygen mixed with ozone ([O3] = 20 g/m3) during 6.8 or 20.5 minutes. Germination tests started immediately or 48 h after treatment. Effects of oxidative treatments on germination were determined by measuring seedlings and roots (>3 and >20 mm) rate at 3, 4 and 5 days of germination test. Results obtained for treated seed samples were higher than for untreated ones. A faster start of germination was observed for treated samples. This early germination start led to a larger number of germinated seeds with longer roots at 4 and 5 days. Nevertheless, too long an ozone treatment seemed to be unfavorable for seed growth, whereas a short one seemed to be most beneficial.

Link to paper from the Journal of the International Ozone Association

This testing did show faster germination of the corn seed, and larger roots on the germinated seed after 4-5 days.  This is fun research, and could be a new use for ozone in agriculture?

North Dakota State University Researches Ozone for Small Grains

Posted by Jamie Hansmann on April 6, 2010 under Grain & Feed Remediation | Be the First to Comment

The Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering at North Dakota State University has been doing some interesting research evaluating ozone as a possible antimycotoxin and microbiocide for small grains. Since grains contain a variety of micro-flora (bacteria, mold, etc), processors are careful to monitor micro-flora levels and take measures to reduce them before processing. Ozone is a simple alternative for reducing micro-flora that leaves behind no chemical byproducts to pollute the grain.
UND researchers have been evaluating ozonated water (ozone dissolved in water) for reducing micro-flora, and have results indicating that ozonated water could become a common cleaning agent in the grain industry as it has in the fruit and vegetable industries.

NDSU Ozone Grain Research

For further information on NDSU’s research on ozone and small grain:
Evaluation of Ozone as an Antimycotoxin and Microbiocide in Small Grains

For further information on the benefits of ozone in the food industry:
Ozone and Food Processing