Ozone Solutions can help your food business for FSMA

Posted by Cade Kats on February 26, 2016 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

The Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), gives the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) more authority to access when serious health effects are in food companies. It mandates frequent inspections of food-production facilities and gives the FDA authority to issue mandatory product recalls. The recalls are issued if the FDA determines a product is adulterated or misbranded, and there may be a serious threat to the consumer. It also charges the FDA with establishing science-based standards for conducting risk-based inspections [1].

Under the law, the FDA can charge food plants for the re-inspection of the facilities. Ozone, with strong anti-oxidant properties, kills pathogens like, Listeria, salmonella, campylobacter, botrytis, E.coli in seconds [2]. Ozone reverts back to oxygen after disinfection, and does not leave harmful chemical traces on the foods.  In this case, ozone is considered a more powerful and green alternative to chlorine. All of these properties make ozone an ideal candidate for preventative FSMA actions.

With all of the FSMA requirements, Ozone Solutions is proud to help you with ozone preventative solutions. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.

Author: Reza Zahedi


[1]. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/FSMA/, accessed Feb. 2015.

[2]. http://www.ozonesolutions.com/info/ozone-effects-on-pathogens .

Disinfection of the Date Fruit

Posted by Cade Kats on December 16, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Advantage of Ozone for Date Disinfection

The Date is disinfected by methyl bromide and phosphine to increase its shelf life time. These chemicals have some toxic side effects and their residue should be below some thresholds on the food stuff. These health concerns have increased use of ozone as an alternative safe and efficient organic disinfectant.

Ozone exposure of 10g/h for three hours is capable of reducing 53 percent in mold and yeast load on the date fruits. Bactria load also decreases 76 percent during the ozonation. Ozone does not leave a trace on the dates and there is no color anDates Fruit In A Wooden Bowl Closeup On Wooden Backgroundd taste change in the date fruits [1].

Employing higher concentration of ozone will yield close to 100 percent microbial load reduction.







[1]. Farajzadeh D, Qorbanpoor A, Rafati H, Isfeedvajani MS,” Reduction of date microbial load with ozone”, J Res Med Sci. 2013 Apr;18(4):330-4.

Use of Ozone in Blueberry Disinfection and Shelf Life Extension

Posted by Cade Kats on December 7, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Proper storage for blueberries is 0oC and relative humidity of 90-95 percent can provide 10-18 days of shelf life. Ozone gas not only can increase the shelf life of the blueberries but it can decreases weight loss and firmness loss of the blueberries. Meyer et al. found that blueberries stored under O3 blueberries shoBlueberries Macrow less weight loss and less loss of firmness (at 12°C after 10 days) when compared to the other traditional treatments [2].

Ozone also reduces 5.6 log Salmonella and 4.5 Log of E. coli O157:H7 by washing the blueberries.






[1]. J. Bachmann and R. Earles, Postharvest Handling of Fruits and Veget abl es , ATTRA, 2000.

[2]. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfs/2015/164143/, accessed Nov 2015.

[3]. Katherine L. Bialka, “DECONTAMINATION OF BERRIES WITH OZONE AND PULSED UV-LIGHT”, PhD thesis, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

, The Pennsylvania State University, 2007.

Using ozone for melons shelf life extension

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on August 24, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

U.S. watermelon production in 2012 totaled more than 3.9 billion pounds. The value of fresh market watermelons in 2012 is $520.8 million [1]. Most of the watermelons harvested in the United States are sold as fresh produce. The fruit should be consumed within two or three weeks of harvest.

Watermelon slices on the wooden tableWatermelons produce low levels of ethylene, but exposure of fruit to as little as 5ppm ethylene causes softening, rind thinning, flesh color fading, and over ripening. Honeydew and Persian melons are moderate producers with high sensitivity to ethylene. Cantaloupes are high ethylene producers but have moderate sensitivity.  Effects of ethylene are loss of firmness, yellowing and an increase in volatiles.

Long distance shipment of melons benefits from controlled atmosphere storage with high carbon dioxide which retards decay development, color change and softening.

Ozone quickly can destroy ethylene and keep the melons in a good condition.

For the water melon cutting process, ozone can be used for disinfecting the knives and shells and at the same time ozone will increase the shelf life of sliced watermelons.

The following is the process for using ozone in melon slicing:

Watermelon → Selecting → Washing by water → Peeling → Cutting → Putting on polystyrene trays → Preliminary wrapping by polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride → Ozone blowing into the package containing the fresh-cut → Complete wrapping by polyethylene or polyvinyl chloride → Storing at 4o C → Watermelon fresh-cut for consumption

It can be noted that ozone blowing into the package containing watermelon fresh-cut decreases the number of microbial cells in the product. The longer the treatment time, the lower the number of bacteria, yeasts and molds in the product. In addition, during the storage, by using ozone, the fresh cut melons can last for an additional 7 days [2].




[1]. http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/vegetables/watermelon, accessed August 2015.

[2]. Le Van Viet Man, Tran Quoc Huy, STUDY ON PROLONGATION OF WATERMELON FRESH-CUT SHELFLIFE BY OZONE TREATMENT, Science & Technology Development, Vol 11, No.09 – 2008 .

Disinfecting Honey Comb with Ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on August 10, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) research has shown that fumigating honeycombs with ozone gas can eliminate pests and pathogens that threaten honey bee health and productivity. Now, ozone fumigation may also help reduce pesticide levels in honeycombs [1].

The study demonstrated that fumigating honeycombs with ozone gas at concentrations of 215 to 430 ppm kills all life stages of the greater wax moth. The kill also depended on the ozone exposure length.

Ozone also destroys spores of the chalkbrood fungus after 24 to 36 hours of exposure using 1,500 ppm. Another honeybee pathogen, the American foulbrood bacterium, required substantially longer exposure times and an ozone concentration twice as high. Studies also show that ozone treatments also degraded the pesticides in honeycombs [2].

Ozone Solution is proud to provide  fumigation chambers for honey Comb disinfection.






[1]. http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2014/140313.htm, accessed  August 2015.

[2]. http://todayscience.org/AS/v1-1/AS.2291-4471.2013.0101001.pdf, accessed  August 2015.

Benefits of Ozone for fruit and produce wash

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on February 23, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Washing vegetables may prevent cross contamination chances, but without proper disinfection there is still a chance of Listeria, E.coli and Salmonella.  Washing the fruits and produce does not totally remove Residues of vinclozolin, bifenthrin and chlorpyrifos [1]. Some fruits like apples, cucambers, lemons, oranges, eggplants and bell peppers have a wax layer to extend their shelf life and this layer is not totally removed by washing or rinsing with water. Produce processors frequently spray their fruits and vegetables with a fine film of approved wax, lacquer or resin coating. Although the FDA considers these coatings to be safe for consumption, many consumers prefer to remove them before using the produce. This has the additional benefit of removing the majority of micro-organisms that can cause food-borne illness.

Washing fruits and vegetables with ozone not only disinfects them in seconds but it has the advantage of removing pesticides. Ozone also is very helpful in the wax removal process.  Completely disinfect your produce and not damage the product by calling us today for a consult on how to add ozone to your process. 1.712.439.6880





[1]. http://www.ct.gov/caes/cwp/view.asp?a=2815&q=376676

Beef Processing Using Ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on January 6, 2015 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

U.S. beef production (commercial carcass weight) is at 25.8 billion pounds a year.  The total U.S. beef consumed was 25.5 billion pounds and average annual U.S. retail Choice beef price in 2013 was $5.29/lb [1]. By increasing beef demand in the US and increasing demand for disinfectants that can be economical and at the same time be harmless to human and do not change quality of the meat is increasing. Several disinfectants have been used in the slaughter houses. Chlorine is one of the commonly used disinfectants. Chlorine also is effective against fungi, bacteria, and algae. Chlorine is not effective against spores. Household bleach (5.25 percent NaClO ), a common source, is cheap and readily available. It is typically diluted using 1:128 to 1:32 with water (1/8 to 1/2 cup per gallon of water). Disinfection selection depends on the slaughter house’s process and what they expect from disinfection. Disinfecting the beef, floor, air, equipment, and even disinfecting the water fed to animals are among the expectations from disinfection. Generally selecting disinfectant which has a wide range of elimination (eliminates bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi and spores) is the best criteria after economic considerations [2].

Chlorine disinfectants corrode metals and deteriorate fabrics. Chlorine in high concentrations irritates the mucus membranes, eyes, and skin. Organic material such as feces inactivate chlorine disinfectants, therefore, surfaces must be clean before using a chlorine disinfectant. A 50 percent stock bleach (2.125 percent) is half effective in in temperature to 50 0F. Iodine and Iodophor Disinfectants Provide wide germicidal activity and are relatively nontoxic. They have limited activity in the presence of organic matters. Chlorhexidine is relatively nonirritating to tissues. To be effective chlorhexidine must remain in contact with the surface for at least five minutes.  Hard or alkaline water will cause precipitation of the active ingredients necessary for disinfection. Alcohols require time to work and they do not penetrate organic material. Alcohol irritates tissues and denatures protein which may promote bacterial growth in open wounds. They are too expensive for general use [2].

Ozone as a green oxidant is capable of destroying a verity of viruses and bacteria’s in a limited time. Ozone is capable of disinfecting even in the presence of organic matters. Ozone removes also smells from the slaughter house and ozone gas will disinfect the air (the ozone level should be less than 0.1 ppm to be safe for workers). Ozone is an oxidant and material compatibility should be considered when dealing with ozone.


[1]. http://www.beefusa.org/beefindustrystatistics.aspx#sthash.aOviOo4X.dpuf, accessed Dec. 2014

[2]. http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/epublic/archive/g1410/build/g1410.pdf, accessed Dec. 2014

Ozone Used in the Chicken Farm

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on August 29, 2014 under Food Processing & Storage | 5 Comments to Read


AbstracChicken Farm

Bacterial contamination is a major concern in the food industry.  Even small amounts of Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other microorganisms can cause widespread illness after an infected product enters the market.  Because of this, there are many guidelines and procedures in place to minimize potential contamination in food processing plants.  Ozone is becoming more widely used in farms and factories to prevent contamination.  Because of its reactivity, it is a very effective sanitizing agent, killing a larger percentage of microorganisms than other common disinfectants such as chlorine and formaldehyde.



Campylobacter is a gram negative rod-shaped bacterium.  It thrives in moist, reduced-oxygen conditions.  It is carried in the intestinal tracts of livestock, especially chickens, making it a major cause of bacterial diarrheal illness.  Exposure to air, drying, and low pH can hinder the growth and spread of Campylobacter (Curtis and Butler).  Freezing can deactivate the bacteria, but it doesn’t kill them with a return to room temperature, so heating is a more effective mode of killing and preventing the spread of Campylobacter.

Ozone is becoming a prevalent method of preventing Campylobacter contamination in the poultry industry.  Ozone is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms.  It can act as an oxidant and disinfectant (Spartan Water Treatment).  Ozone readily decomposes to O2, producing a very reactive free oxygen atom, which can cause lysis, the disintegration of bacterial cell walls. It is produced by exposing oxygen (either from air or in its pure form) to radiation, causing an oxygen to break off from the rest of the ozone molecule.  Because of the short-lived nature of ozone, it must be generated on-site, leading to higher operating costs than other modes of disinfection.  Despite some drawbacks, ozone’s strength as a disinfectant has led to its increased use in wastewater treatment and produce and livestock decontamination. (Boglarski and Telikicherla)


Points of Contamination

As few as 500 Campylobacter – the equivalent of 1 drop of contaminated raw chicken juicecan cause illness in a person. (Keener, Bashor, Curtis, Sheldon, and Kathariou)  This makes it crucial to limit the contamination and spread of Campylobacteria in poultry.  Because the bacteria live in the intestinal tract of chickens, the major source of contamination is through exposure to feces.  Pre-harvest, an infected chicken can quickly infect the rest of the population.  After slaughtering, there are numerous possible points of contamination, including fecal contamination of the skin and feathers, intest
inal breakage, and exposure to contaminated equipment or other infected carcasses.  In addition, defeathering and scalding the carcasses opens up follicles, giving Campylobacter a place to hide from further methods of cleaning.  After slaughtering, the birds are washed and immediately chilled.  This becomes yet another potential point of contamination of the poultry.
Ozone can be put in the water that chickens drink as well as in the surrounding air.  This produces healthier chickens, as it ensures that they are not infected by unclean water.  Earth Safe Ozone measured the effects of its UltraPur ozonation system on three different farms, with an average flock size of 80,000 each.  Several parameters including % of birds alive, average weight, and bacteria count were measured a year before and after the installation of the UltraPur system. The percent of birds alive rose from an average of 96.1% to 97.2%, which is an increase of about 900 chickens.  The average chicken weight rose from 4.05 lbs to 4.15 lbs.  The total bacteria decreased from over 100 ppm to less than 2 ppm.  The decrease in total bacteria shows the effectiveness of ozone as a sanitizer, while the increase in average weight and % alive shows that ozone also makes the chickens healthier overall (Earth Safe Ozone).

Another major use of ozone in the poultry industry is in disinfection of the carcasses post-harvest.  Ozone will not only kill Campylobacter, but all other known pathogens as well.  Ozone is sprayed directly on the carcasses, the transportation equipment, and cutting utensils.  In addition to its disinfecting properties, ozonated water is also sprayed on machinery to minimize filth residues from fats, oils, and grease.  Since ozone produces no harmful byproducts, machinery does not require further rinsing after sanitation.  This in turn makes it a safe alternative to formaldehyde and chlorine for the workers applying the ozone disinfectant.  An ozone disinfection system is easy to implement in current processing plants as it can be put into any existing gas or aqueous dispensers.

Because of ozone’s reactivity, it is also much more efficient and effective at decontamination.  J.C. Morris developed a lethality coefficient to show the effectiveness of ozone as a disinfectant.  The lethality coefficient is determined by the residual concentration and the length of time required to kill 99% of microorganisms.  The higher the lethality coefficient, the stronger the sanitizing effects of the disinfectant.  For enteric bacteria, ozone has a lethality coefficient of 500, while chlorine (in the form of hypochlorous acid) has a value of 20.  Other methods of chlorination even lower lethality coefficients.  This demonstrates that, in a shorter time frame, ozone can kill a larger percentage of microorganisms than the alternatives (Spartan Environmental Technologies).



Pathogens have been and will continue to be a major issue in the food industry at all levels, especially Campylobacter with its ability to spread with ease and extremely low amount required to cause illness.  Whether the disease is at the farm, at the slaughterhouse, or in the transportation/distribution centers millions of people could be at risk.  Ozone provides a relatively easy alternative for cleaning or decontaminating the poultry and the equipment used on the poultry, especially since it can be included with almost any preexisting aqueous or gaseous substances used in sanitation.  It is worth noting though that the company should take efforts to figure out approximate amounts of ozone required, as a way to reduce both unnecessary ozone costs and unintended remnants of ozone particles or free oxygen atoms.  In the long run, ozone is generally a healthier sanitation substance than most other substances currently being used in the food industry and it is well worth the extra cost for its efficiency.



Works Cited

“Better Production from a Simple Idea.” . Earth Safe Ozone, n.d. Web. 24 June 2014. <http://www.earthsafeozone.com/pdf_docs/chicken_flyer.pdf>.


Boglarski, Steve , and Shyam Telikicherla. “Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation.” Disinfection: An Overview – Ozonation. N.p., 1 Jan. 1995. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.rpi.edu/dept/chem-eng/Biotech-Environ/DISINFECT/ozone.htm>.


Curtis, Patricia, and Jessica Butler. “Controlling Campylobacter in Poultry Plants.” . USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service, 1 Jan. 2009. Web. 16 June 2014. <http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/5c63b387-ec06-4365-9094-6682ce1d3d82/how_to_campylobacter.pdf?MOD=AJPERES>.


Keener, K.M. , M.P. Bashor, P.A. Curtis, B.W. Sheldon, and S. Kathariou. “Comprehensive Review of Campylobacter and Poultry Processing.” N.p., 20 Nov. 2006. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2004.tb00060.x/pdf>.


“Ozonated Water, Ozone Generator for Water & Air Treatment in poultry Industry.”, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.indianozone.com/poultry-farming.htm>.


“Ozonation in Water Treatment.” DWC-Water: How does Ozone disinfection works?. DecRen Water Consult, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.dwc-water.com/technologies/ozone-disinfection/how-does-ozone-disinfection-works/index.html>.


“Ozone System for Poultry Applications.” ozone poultry applications from faraday. Faraday Ozone, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.faradayinstruments.com/applications/poultry>.


“Ozone Water Treatment – Ozone Disinfection and Water Purification.” Spartan Environmental Technologies, n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.spartanwatertreatment.com/Ozone-disinfection.html>.


“Understanding Ozone.” Ozone Safe Food Inc. – Manufacturers of Commercial Ozone Generators for Food Processing and Equipment Sanitation for the Meat, Beef, Poultry, Seafood, Produce, and Fruit & Vegetable Processing Industries.. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2014. <http://www.ozonesafefood.com/overview.htm>.

Ozone is Helpful in Reducing Nitrosamine

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on August 25, 2014 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Nitrosamines are formed via the reaction of secondary or tertiary amines with a nitrosating agent. In foods, the nitrosating agent is usually nitrous anhydride, formed from nitrite in acidic and is an aqueous solution. Food constituents and the physical makeup of the food can affect nitrosamine formation. Nitrosodimethylamine has been shown to be formed in certain foods as a result of the direct-fire drying process. In this case, oxides of nitrogen in the drying air nitrosate amines in the food being dried. The volatile nitrosamine which occurs most commonly in food is nitrosodimethylamine, and nitrosopyrrolidine occurs to a lesser extent. Due to limitations in analytical methodology, very little information is available on the levels of nonvolatile nitrosamines and other N-nitroso compounds in foods.

Nitrosamines in Food, Body Fluids, and Occupational Exposure[1]

  • Fried bacon
  • Cured meats
  • Beer
  • Nonfat dry milk
  • Tobacco products
  • Gastric juices
  • Rubber products
  • Rubber manufacturing
  • Metal industries
  • Pesticide production and use
  • Certain cosmetics
  • Certain chemical manufacturing

Nitrosamines are carcinogenic in animals. What level of exposure to these carcinogens do humans have? A 1981 report from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) estimated that the per capita exposure is about 1 microgram per day from foods and beverages, mainly from fried bacon and beer. Current exposure is probably closer to 0.1 microgram per day due to successful efforts over the past 20 years to reduce nitrosamine formation in foods and beverages.[2] Reverse Osmosis (RO) concentrate also can have traces of nitrous amine [3].

[1] http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/f-w00/nitrosamine.html

[2] U.S. EPA (2012). N-Nitrosodimethylamine (CASRN 62-75-9). Intregrated Risk Information System.http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0045.htm

[3] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24008222

Ozone Saves Money in Poultry Plants

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on July 18, 2014 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Chlorine is widely used in sanitation of poultry operations. However, chlorine generates several by-products that are proven to be harmful from a food safety and environmental point of view. The search for alternatives to chlorine in poultry operations, particularly in the chiller, is of interest to the poultry industry. Using ozone in the poultry operation is a great solution. Poultry processing plants use large volumes of water and the cost of obtaining and disposing it is increasing rapidly. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point quality control procedures, introduced recently, have increased the water usage and compounded the situation. The cost of electrical energy for cooling chiller water is another major concern.  The volume of ozonated water is 30% less than volume of chlorinated water [1]. Ozone does not produce halogenated organic compounds that are harmful to health and, in this case, Ozone is the best solution for poultries who seek to be ORGANIC poultries.

USDA Logo 2

Ozone can be sprayed at several points during poultry processes including; washing the cutting machines, conveyors, and chilled rooms. It can also be sprayed on the carcasses. Ozone eliminates odor, biofilm, while also significantly reducing fats, oils, and grease on all surfaces. In this case ozone is not only a safe disinfectant, which will be turned into oxygen at the end of process, but it is considered a Sustainable Disinfectant.

[1]. Applications of Ozonation and Membrane Treatment in Poultry Processing, final report, 400-02-023F, Public Interest Energy Research Program California Energy Commission, Jan. 2002.