Ozone Increases Auto Washing in Ceramic Membranes

Posted by Cade Kats on April 15, 2016 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

Ceramic membranes have been widely used in the industry because of their resistance to corrosive components, stability, reasonable price and durability. Fouling is a common problem in ceramic membranes. The source of fouling is contact of the membrane with Organic Matters which increase bio-film on the membrane surface.

Ceramic membranes are ozone compatible and their porous media can be disinfected and cleaned with aqueous ozone.

Ozone, because of its anti-fouling characteristics, oxidizes and destroys the bio fouling on the surface of the membrane. In this case, having a small residue of ozone in the stream will help auto washing of the membrane and it lowers maintenance cost of the membrane.

Permeate and rejected streams should be carefully studied for ozone injection to avoid any undesired reactions. Please contact us at Ozone Solutions if we can offer ozone treatment for your membrane system.


Author: Reza Zahedi

Treatment of 1,4-Dioxane by ozone and advanced oxidation

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on April 17, 2015 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

1,4-Dioxane-3D-balls1,4 dioxane  is classified by U.S EPA as probable human carcinogen. Several states have regulated dioxane level in the drinking water and groundwater to be between 3-85 µg/L [1]. Dioxane is mostly used as a stabilizer for chlorinated solvents and also is a byproduct during polyester production. Dioxane also contaminates ground water and when it penetrates into underground water it consequently contaminates drinking water.

Dioxane is fully miscible in the water and it is resistant to biological degradation. The best option for Dioxane reduction is using combination of hydrogen peroxide with Ozone or UV systems.

Please contact ozone solutions for your UV or ozone options to remove dioxine at 1.712.439.6880 or info@ozonesolutions.com.

Pharmaceutical, Personal Care Products, and Endocrine Disrupting Compound removal by ozone

Posted by Kaleb Jensen on October 17, 2014 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

The drinking water industry faces a number of questions as the regulatory and public communities become aware of the presence of compounds in water that were not previously detectable. With analytical advances over the past decade, several new classes of organic compounds have been identified.

Conventional treatment (coagulation plus chlorination) would have low removal of many Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) or Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs). EDCs and PPCPs are emerging environmental contaminants that in very small concentrations may cause disruption of endocrine systems and affect the hormonal control of development in aquatic organisms and wildlife. PPCPs are continuously introduced into the environment and are prevalent at small concentrations [1], which can affect water quality and potentially impact drinking water supplies, ecosystems and human health.

The reuse of wastewater on agricultural lands may transfer these compounds to the soil environment. Due to the high polarity of these compounds, there could be leaches into the groundwater.

Existing strategies that predict relative removals of herbicides, pesticides, and other organic pollutants by activated carbon or oxidation can be directly applied for the removal of many EDC/PPCPs. But, these strategies need to be modified to account for charged (protonated bases or deprotonated acids) and aliphatic species. Some compounds (e.g., DEET, ibuprofen, gemfibrozil) had low removals unless ozonation was used. The addition of ozone substantially improves EDC and PPCP removals.


Schematic of EDC and PPCP leakage into drinking water (www.eusem.com)



[1] J. Lintelmann, A. Katayama, N. Kurihara, L. Shore, A. Wenzel, Endocrine disruptors in the environment (IUPAC technical report), Pure Appl. Chem. 75 (2003) 631–681.

Ozone Pretreatement for better tasting water

Posted by Joel Leusink on February 8, 2013 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment


A Matter of Taste: UF/RO System Features Ozone Pretreatment

In Emmons County, ND, a new water treatment system successfully combines ozone pretreatment, ultrafltration and reverse osmosis with no compatibility issues.


Ultrafiltration equipment
Ultrafiltration equipment at the Emmons Country Water Treatment Plant

Poor tasting artesian well water that caused rust and corrosion to plumbing fxtures and home appliances was normal in Emmons County, ND, a rural farming community southeast of Bismarck. The South Central Regional Water District utility knew that water from these wells contained high levels of dissolved solids, hardness, and sulfates, as well as arsenic content beyond the safety standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Those problems are over now, thanks to funding from the American Reinvestment & Recovery Act for an innovative system that combines ozone pretreatment, ultrafltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to treat nearby Missouri River water – reducing tap water hardness from 40 grains to as low as six grains. In operation since May 2012, the new Emmons County Water Treatment Plant demonstrates the successful use of ozone as a primary disinfection and pretreatment for the downstream UF and RO membrane technologies with no compatibility issues.

Communities are treating surface water with ozone because it is economical and effective, and the only byproducts are oxygen and water. The challenge – ozone is harsher than other water treatment chemicals, creating a harsh inlet stream for further treatments, such as UF and RO. The tasty water provided by the new Emmons County water treatment plant validates the unique technology of ozone pretreatment for UF and RO membranes with stable operating performance of the membrane fltration plant and the excellent chemical compatibility of the UF and RO systems.

Read entire article HERE


The benefits of ozone for cryptosporidium inactivation

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 15, 2012 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

Crypto is one of the toughest microbes faced in water treatment.

Read full article HERE

By Marc DeBrum
November 07, 201

There are constant microbiological threats in our daily lives; unfortunately, our drinking water and the recreational water that we play in are not excluded from where these threats reside. Among those preying on unsuspecting humans is the protozoan parasite — cryptosporidium (crypto). Crypto is one of the toughest microbes faced in water treatment, however, by the power of the molecule, ozone can eliminate it.

Ozone lysing a bacteria

Ozone, molecularly known as O3, is a sanitizer and is relentless in its attack of organic microbes (bacteria, viruses, cysts, etc). Through a process known as lysing, ozone breaks down cell walls or membranes, where it can then destroy the nucleus of the microbe. In addition to sanitation, ozone is well known for the oxidizing of inorganic material that could be present in water, such as metals (e.g., iron and manganese). Although there are a few stronger oxidizers, ozone is the strongest that is readily available for commercial or residential use (see Figure 1). In fact, it is 1.5 times stronger than chlorine and many times faster acting. While leaving no off tastes, chemical by-products or residues, ozone is widely used in bottled water plants, wineries, breweries and food processing plants all over the world. Furthermore, because of this higher oxidation strength, ozone cannot build up a tolerance to microbes unlike other sanitizers, such as chlorine.

Read full article HERE

Learn more about water treatment with ozone here.

Ozone Use in Drinking Water

Posted by Joel Leusink on October 25, 2012 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

Did you know the most common industrial use for ozone is drinking water?

If you are new to the world of ozone it may surprise you how prevalent the use of ozone is throughout the United States. Today, there are more than 280 major water treatment plants in the United States that incorporate the use of ozone in their processes. It is projected that by 2015 the number of plants using ozone will reach 300. There is a very good chance that the water you are drinking has been treated with ozone prior to your consumption.

Water Splashing

Ozone use in drinking water has  has been prevalent throughout the world since the early 1900’s.  Ozone was initially used in the United States in 1940 in Whiting, IN for water disinfection in the water treatment process. From there, the use of ozone in drinking water has expanded to its’ current wide usage throughout the United States today. In 1982, ozone was given GRAS approval for use in bottled water. This opened up the use of ozone for disinfection in the bottled water industry. Today, the majority of bottled water companies use ozone to ensure pure water that is pathogen free for consumers. Read more about ozone use in bottled water .

Drinking Fountain

Looking ahead, ozone may also be used for the removal of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals in the water, personal care products, and endocrine disruptors. Ozone is currently used in waste-water disinfection for these purposes and it is possible the use of ozone will be carried over into drinking water plants in the future.

A few examples of large U.S. Cities using ozone today are below:

  • Los Angeles, CA since 1987
  • Tuscon, AX since 1992
  • Dallas, TX since 1993
  • Raleigh, NC since 1999
  • Seattle, WA since 2000
  • Orlando, FL since 2004

The effects of ozonation on algae in drinking water treatment

Posted by Joel Leusink on November 30, 2011 under Drinking Water Treatment | Read the First Comment

New research from UMass Amherst

University of Massachusetts Amherst


Ozonation of drinking waters containing algae sometimes has a beneficial effect on the process of coagulation. It is hypothesized that the extracellular organic matter (EOM) from the algae affects the flocculation process. The effects on algal particle stability and flocculation due to ozonation and the role of EOM were investigated. Four species of algae were cultivated and EOM from the algae extracted. Scanning electron micrographs (SEMs) of the algae indicated little cell lysing for ozone doses of 3 mg/L or less. Extensive cell wall alteration was observed. Lysis of algae cells was prominent at 8 mg/L ozone. Ozonation decreased the algae volume concentrations and cell sizes. Cyclotella and Scenedesmus produced ten times as much EOM per unit cell number than Chlorella. The EOM of Cyclotella and Scenedesmus was also of higher molecular size than that of Chlorella. Increasing the ozone dose to extracted EOM and alginic acid, a model EOM compound, resulted in decreasing molecular size, colloid charge and increasing hydrophilicity and functional group charge. Bench scale jar tests and flocculation kinetic experiments were performed. Ozonation was not effective in decreasing the polymer dose required to coagulate the algae. However, ozonation improved overall removals of Scenedesmus, Cyclotella and Synura. Ozonation also increased the flocculation rate of Scenedesmus and Cyclotella, but had a detrimental effect on the rate for Chlorella. Increasing calcium (up to 30 mg/L as CaCO$\sb3$) and ozone dosage increased the flocculation rate of Scenedesmus. Natural waters spiked with Cyclotella and Synura showed an increased flocculation rate upon ozonation.

Click HERE for original site and link to entire papre

Learn more about ozone and algae from Ozone Solutions HERE

How to remove Iron and Manganese using Ozone

Posted by Joel Leusink on September 29, 2011 under Drinking Water Treatment | 8 Comments to Read

Iron and Manganese Removal Using Ozone

Iron and manganese removal is one of the more common uses for ozone in drinking water systems. Iron and manganese are easily oxidized by ozone. This document will serve to help understand the fundamentals of iron and manganese oxidation with ozone. We will also cover the practical application of ozone in this application while offering helpful tips learned over the years.

Ozone oxidation of iron and manganese is an extremely fast reaction. In many ozone applications elevated levels of iron and manganese can cause nuisance issues due to soluble iron and manganese inadvertently oxidizing by ozone and dropping out of solution in less than ideal locations. If those concerns are what brought you here, keep reading, we will offer helpful tips to mitigate these issues as best as possible.



Iron and manganese in water cause no health related issues, the main purpose for iron and manganese removal is aesthetics due to the discoloration of water. Removal also may be necessary due to buildup of iron and manganese on pipes, fixtures, and other surfaces.

Both Iron Fe(II) and Manganese Mn(II) are soluble (non-removable) in water causing them to flow directly through conventional filtration without some form of oxidation to transform them into particulates (removable).

Iron Removal

Soluble Iron Fe(II) is called ferrous iron. Ferrous Iron Fe(II) is oxidized to Ferric Iron Fe(III) by ozone. This Ferric Iron Fe(III) will then hydrolyze to form Fe(OH)3 which is a particulate and can be removed by standard filtration. The reaction of Ferrous Iron Fe(II) to Ferric Iron Fe(II) consumes 0.43 mg of ozone per mg of Fe(II). Iron can also be oxidized by oxygen. Due to the oxidation of iron by oxygen, an Ozone System for iron removal may be more efficient that the calculated ozone demand of 0.43 mg ozone per mg iron. The oxidation of ferrous iron requires only an electron exchange and therefore is a fast reaction. The speed of this reaction will typically consume almost all ozone in iron oxidation reaction prior to any manganese oxidation.

Manganese Removal

Soluble Manganese Mn(II) is oxidized by ozone to form manganese dioxide MnO2 which is a particulate and can be easily removed by standard filtration. This process consumes 0.88 mg of ozone per mg of Manganese Mn(II). However, over oxidation of manganese will form soluble permanganate MnO4-. While permanganate will normally return to manganese dioxide MnO2 over time (20-30 minutes) it is best to design a manganese removal system with the proper ozone dosages and integrate controls to prevent over oxidation.


Ozone will oxidize iron and manganese to form insoluble particulates that can easily be filtered from the water. Iron and manganese will build up on the filter over time and must be removed from the process water. A back-washable filter is highly recommended for these applications. Sand filters are widely used for iron and manganese removal due to the simple design and the long lasting filter media. In continuous use systems it will be necessary to use two (2) filters in parallel and time the back-wash cycles to occur at opposite times.

The back-wash water from these filters will have extremely high levels of iron and manganese and must be disposed of with care. While neither iron or manganese have any health or safety risks, there are plumbing considerations to keep in mind as drain pipes may become obstructed with iron and manganese build-up over time.

Practical Application

The use of ozone for iron and manganese removal is very common and has been in use for many years. The reaction of ozone and these metals is fairly simple and straight forward. There are a few design considerations that should be accounted for prior to installing an Ozone System for iron and manganese removal.

System Sizing

Sizing an Ozone System for iron and manganese removal can be fairly straight forward. Basic ozone demand must be calculated to determine how much ozone is necessary to oxidize both iron and manganese. Keep in mind that all other elements in the water may react with ozone and consume some ozone. Other potential reactions must be accounted for and entered into the calculations. For simplicity we will assume only iron and manganese are in our sample water.

The stoichiometric ozone demand rates were covered in the chemistry section of this document. They are 0.43 mg for iron and 0.88 mg for manganese.

Ozone dosage into water is calculated using the following formula:

(3.78 * 60 * GPM * PPM) / 1000 = g/hr

If for example incoming water of 10 gallons per minutes (GPM) has 3 ppm of iron and 0.5 ppm manganese the following calculations would be used

3 ppm Iron x 0.43 = 1.29 ppm ozone consumption

0.5 ppm Manganese x 0.88 ppm ozone consumption

1.29 + 0.44 = 1.73 ppm total ozone consumption

(3.78 * 60 * 10 GPM * 1.73 ppm) / 1000 = 3.9 g/hr ozone demand

This calculation provides the necessary ozone in grams per hour (g/hr) to oxidize the iron and manganese. Additional ozone production may be necessary to overcome system inefficiencies, water temperature, or other factors. (This is for demonstration purposes only.)

Additional Ozone Formulas and Equations

System Plumbing

Due to the fast reaction of ozone and iron oxidation there are some important design considerations that must be evaluated prior to system implementation. For an example of a working system design review the diagram below.

Diagram of an Ozone System Integrated with a Filtration SystemNotes:

  • Clean, filtered water is used for ozone injection. Due to the fast reaction of ozone and iron it is common for ozone injectors, pumps, and other piping to become obstructed due to iron build-up. Using clean water for the ozone injection loop eliminates this potential.
  • Aqueous ozone is mixed with the incoming water in a contact tank to allow the reaction of iron and manganese to occur in a tank that will off-gas all excess ozone safely.
  • Redundant sand filters are used to filter the oxidized iron and manganese from the water stream.
  • ORP meters or dissolved ozone meters can be used to automate the Ozone System. These probes must be placed in the clean water stream to eliminate fouling.


Ozone use for iron and manganese oxidation can be a great solution to what may have been a difficult problem to solve using other technologies. Ozone can be implemented very easily and reliably with no major maintenance or operation costs. However, ozone can also be difficult to manage if not installed properly. Iron can precipitate from solution in undesirable locations, and manganese can be over-oxidized and pass through filtration even after ozone treatment. This informational document serves to offer some helpful tips and useful information. If you think ozone may be a solution for your application give our office a call and speak with one of our Application Engineers to help design a solution that is right for you.


Ozone in Drinking Water Treatment — Kerwin L. Rakness pg. 47 & 48

Ozone in Water Treatment Application and Engineering — cooperative research report — Bruno Langlais, David Reckhow, Deborah Brink: pg. 24-27, 139-142,

Stormwater to Drinking Water

Posted by Jamie Hansmann on September 24, 2009 under Drinking Water Treatment | Be the First to Comment

An Australian project is now providing bottled drinking water whose source is storm runoff from the city of Salisbury, South Australia.  Using a process that includes holding storage, filtration, aquifer transfer, aeration, and ozone disinfection they provide an end product that meets or exceeds the standards for drinking water according to CSIRO (Australia’s national science agency).  As a test program, it shows promise for providing a cost-effective addition to urban water supplies, while reducing carbon footprint and waterway pollution.  See the original article here.

Flow Diagram of Rainwater System

Flow Diagram of Rainwater System