Dissolved Ozone vs Temperature

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 21, 2011 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

Here is an interesting chart for you. This shows the solubility of ozone into water at varying temperatures. This a great way to illustrate how much of a difference temperature plays on dissolved ozone levels.
Ozone Solubility

Several conclusions can be postulated from the chart. They are the following:

  • lower temperature permit higher dissolved ozone concentrations
  • higher ozone concentrations in the ozone gas permit higher dissolved ozone concentrations
  • Ozone Solubility vs. Temperature is a linear relationship with virtually no ozone solubility above 43-deg C (110-deg F)

Ozone Molecule

Just how soluble is ozone?

Ozone is extremely soluble! At 25 deg C, ozone solubility is 109 mg/l. The solubility of oxygen is 8 mg/l. Ozone is 13 times more soluble than oxygen.



Chemistry of Ozone

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 18, 2011 under Ozone for Beginners | Read the First Comment

A quick lesson on the chemistry of Ozone.  The video below is a taping of Dr. George Kraft of Kraft Science & Consulting speaking on the chemistry of ozone.  This is a very educational video.

A few more pages on the chemistry of ozone are below:

Basics of Ozone

Ozone Properties

Ozone Formation

Ozone Bubble Diffusers

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 11, 2011 under Ozone for Beginners | 2 Comments to Read

Here are some great examples of Ozone Bubble Diffusers. For more information on differs read this information page, or check out the product page.

This first video is a typical ceramic bubble diffuser.  This is a 80 micron diffuser.  The gas flow is altered from very low, 1 LPM to a max flow of  10 LPM. This shows that the ceramic diffuser creates very small bubble size at low flow rates, however the bubble size increases as the flow rate increases. This shows the importance of using these diffusers only within the rated flow rates.

This second video is of the porous PTFE tubing bubbling ozone into water. This tubing creates bubbles about 100 micron in size. While PTFE tubing will have a long life, and will prevent any buildup or contamination to the diffuser over time, it does create the largest bubbles of the diffusers in our test.

This last video is of a stainless diffuser with a 20 micron rating. This video shows a range of flow from 20 SCFH, to 180 SCFH (3 CFM). This clearly shows that the smaller micron rating creates much smaller ozone bubbles in the water.

While all these diffusers have pro’s and con’s these video’s give a very informative visual as to the operation of these differs in water. We hope this information helps you make decision on the best possible diffuser for your application.

For more information on these diffusers, or any information about dissolving ozone into water, contact our application engineers today.

International Ozone Association (IOA)

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 9, 2011 under International Ozone Association | Be the First to Comment

Did you know that the ozone industry has their own association?

The International Ozone Association (IOA) was formed in 1973 to provide the ozone industry with a central data base of ideas, technical documents, and communication.

International Ozone Association

The International Ozone Association consists of 3 regional groups, the Pan American Group (PAG) that serves all of North, Central, and South America, the Nippon Islands Group (NIG) that serves all of Japan, and the European African Australasian Group (EA3G) that serves the rest of the world.

International Ozone Association

The IOA also holds conferences every 2 years with the entire International Ozone Association, and each regional group has annual conferences.  These conferences are a great opportunity to learn more about ozone, the products that various manufacturers produce, and meet many people within the industry that are willing to share information about ozone.

There are many benefits to joining the IOA, and most can be found here.  My personal favorite benefit is the access to every white paper that has been published by the IOA since 1973.  These are now searchable and available for all IOA members.

For more information about the International Ozone Association, please view the IOA website HERE.

UL Ozone Standard 867

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 7, 2011 under Conferences/News | Be the First to Comment

The Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. has a published standard for ozone generators.  This standard pertains specifically to the electrostatic air cleaners used to produce ozone.  We are commonly asked about standards, so I thought I would quickly share this.

UL Ozone Standard 867

Underwriters Laboratories

(for the ozone output of certain electrostatic air cleaners)

The following language is quoted from UL Standard No. 867 with respect to the ozone output of cord-powered portable electrostatic air cleaners for household use:

37 Ozone Test

37.1 A portable product for household use shall not produce a concentration of ozone exceeding 0.05 parts per million by volume when tested as described in 37.2-37.7.

37.2 The test is to be conducted in a room having a volume of 950-1100 cubic feet (26.9-31.1 cubic meters) with a minimum side dimension of 8 feet (2.4 meters) and a maximum height dimension of 10 feet (3.0 meters) without openings. The test room walls and ceiling are to be covered with a sheet of polyethylene or aluminum. The floor is to be of a nonporous material such as vinyl tile or aluminum.

37.3 During the test, the test room is to be maintained at a temperature of 25 plus or minus 2 degrees Centigrade (77 plus or minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit) and a relative humidity of 50 percent plus or minus 5 percent. Prior to the start of and immediately after this test, the ozone background level is to be measured with the product off. The background level average shall be calculated and subtracted from the maximum measurement during the test.

37.4 The product is to be located at the center of the test room floor and about 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor for a table mount product.

37.5 The ozone monitor sampling tube is to be located 2 inches (50 mm) from the air outlet of the product and is to point directly into the air stream.

37.6 The emission of ozone is to be monitored for 24 hours to determine the concentration.

37.7 If the filter cell can be energized with any of its fans not functioning or with particle filters removed, the test described in 37.1-37.6 is to be repeated with the various components not operating or with particle filters removed.

This information is also on our website HERE.

You can also find this information on the UL website.

Measuring Ozone in Air

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 5, 2011 under Ozone for Beginners | Be the First to Comment

New page on our website about measuring ozone in air.  This information was provided by Aeroqual unlimited, a manufacture of gas sensors for many application, including many ozone sensors for ozone.

Ozone Characteristics

Ozone is Highly Reactive

  1. Ozone is highly reactive. Ozone will react readily with organic materials and surfaces such as walls, flooring, ceiling material, plastic test chambers and people. The greater the accuracy of the ozone monitor, the greater the variations will become apparent. If you are testing the accuracy of ozone monitors in test chambers, ensure the devices inside the chamber are clean and do not readily react with ozone. Such materials that work well are fluoropolymers and glass.
  2. Ozone will react with dust and oils. Ensure that all surfaces are clean and that any solvents used to clean such surfaces have completely dried. Even slight solvent residuals will have a dramatic effect on the sensor and residual ozone level in the chamber.
  3. Ozone concentration gradients are common in rooms and are greatly influence by air movement and eddy currents. This effect will be more pronounced at concentrations less than 100 PPB.

Monitor Design and Use

  • Aeroqual’s ozone monitors are designed with “active sampling” to maximize air sampling at the sensor (to minimize ozone losses). Most expensive, analytical instruments also employ active sampling (e.g. UV photometry).
  • Products without “active sampling” (electrochemical and conventional HMOS products) will normally under-read ozone concentrations below 200 parts per billion and struggle with sensitivity and accuracy, particularly in low air flow.
  • “Active sampling” requires air to be blown or pumped to the sensor under precise flow conditions. Aeroqual fan based monitors are designed to be held at right angles to any direct stream being measured. Avoid forcing pressurized air into active sampling monitors.
  • Air inlets are manufactured from cleaned stainless steel mesh and fluoropolymer materials to minimize ozone loss. Do not use sampling tubing:
    • that alters flow characteristics,
    • that reacts with ozone,
    • longer then 1 foot or 30 cm on pumped based monitors without PTFE filters, e.g. centralized monitoring systems.

View full web page HERE.  For any questions on specific ozone monitors or the use of ozone in air please contact our application engineers today.

Study Finds Consuming Ozonated Beer Reverses Aging Process

Posted by Joel Leusink on April 1, 2011 under Wine & Beers | 7 Comments to Read

Please note: This post was made on April Fools day.  Therefore it is possible that at least some of the claims here are exaggerated or even completely untrue.

Researchers nearing the conclusion of a five-year study on human aging announced Friday that they may have found a cure. In fact, a scientist involved with the study, who spoke on condition of anonymity, claims that early results seem to show that consuming certain brands of beer treated with ozone may actually reverse the aging process altogether.

Official results will not be released for at least six months.  However, extensive research statistics and materials were mysteriously leaked and have since been obtained by the Ozone Journal.

Methods and Results

Polypeptide Macromolecule

A single macromolecule. Many of the symptoms of aging in humans are related to accumulated damage to macromolecules.

The study, which began in 2006, focused on how life-long human consumption habits relate to macromolecular damage in living cells, a leading cause of human aging. Researchers hoped to discover a link between certain foods and the rate at which macromolecules are damaged.

As the study progressed, researchers focused on a small group of substances that showed statistical promise.  Eventually they were able to confirm the shocking discovery that mice who consumed specific drafts of beer containing dissolved ozone were not only aging more slowly, but in some cases macromolecular damage was being entirely reversed.  After further refining the mixture, rejuvenation was occurring in mouse cells, tissues, and even whole organ systems.

Aging in Reverse

Preliminary research indicates that an elderly organism will age in reverse back to its prime when put on a regimen of ozonated beer.

Beer Choice

While researchers expected that different brews would not necessarily produce the same results, the beers exhibiting high anti-aging potential (AAP) were a surprising and unlikely assortment.

Comparison of the anti-aging potential of various ozonated beers. Higher levels of AAP indicate faster rates of bimolecular rejuvenation. Click to enlarge.


As a mixture of facts and rumor spread about the study, scientists across the world are raising their eyebrows and expressing caution about the findings.  Brow Furughd, a professor at the French Academy of Sciences expressed skepticism about the chemistry behind such a simple reverse aging formula and how the discovery could have been made outside of Western Europe.

However, Burt McBlitzed, of Alcohaulics Onymous, said his organization fully embraced the preliminary findings.  “Frankly, I’m not surprised at all by this.  I mean, I think we’ve suspected all along that beer represents the fountain of youth in some way.”


The anti-aging study was entirely under supervision and funding of the Great Plains Anti-Aging Institute.

Related Links

Ozone and Sanitizing Beer Lines

Ozone and E.coli Papers

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 31, 2011 under Food Processing & Storage | Be the First to Comment

Ozone is commonly used for the reduction, or elimination of E.coli on food products. Since achievingGRAS approval for the use of ozone for direct contact with food in 2001 the use of ozone for the elimination of E.coli has increased significantly. The specific strain of E.coli most frequently targeted is E.coli O157:H7.

Ozone and E.coli Papers

We have assembled some research on the use of ozone specifically for E.coli O157:H7. This research is linked HERE, we have provided the white paper title, author, and abstract for your review, along with a link to the full paper for your use.

If you have any further questions on the use of ozone for the inactivation of E.coli O157:H7, or any other pathogen, please contact our application engineers today.


Fun Ozone Video of the Day

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 25, 2011 under Conferences/News | Be the First to Comment

It’s been a while, but it’s back.  Fun ozone video of the day.

If this is his idea of “the correct way” I wonder what the wrong way is?

New Ozone Research is Posted

Posted by Joel Leusink on March 20, 2011 under Conferences/News | Read the First Comment

Our Ozone Research page received four new papers today! These four papers are all complete research papers that were written specifically for, or by, Ozone Solutions. See ozone research.

Ozone Ground Beef Testing

These papers are a great addition to our research page. The first paper is a paper on Ozone and ground beef. This paper was presented at the recent International Ozone Association Conference in, Bellevue, WA.  This paper covers the potential use of using ozone gas to reduce E.coli in ground beef.

Antimicrobial and Organoleptic Effects of Aqueous Ozone on Pork Carcasses

The second paper is titled Antimicrobial Effects of Ozonated Water Against Generic E.coli on Swine Intestines. This paper covers the use of ozone on pork carcasses.  This paper was written by a local pork processor to determine if ozone would be good solution for their operation.  Today they are using ozone throughout their plant.

Antimicrobial Effects of Ozonated Water Against Generic E.coli on Swine Intestines

The third paper is my personal favorite.  That may be due to my personal involvement, however it is more likely due to the great results is showed.  This paper shows the relationship of ozone concentration, and contact time against E.coli bacteria.  In this paper we discovered that only 2.0 ppm of ozone for one second of contact time is very effective at achieving a great reduction in E.coli bacteria.

Antimicrobial Efficacies of 2.3 PPM Aqueous Ozone Against E.coli and General Aerobic Bacteria

The final paper titled Antimicrobial Efficacies of 2.3 ppm Aqueous Ozone Against E.coli and General Aerobic Bacteria shows the effect of 2.3 ppm aqueous ozone.  This is a simple paper that shows the great effect of a typical ozone residual in water.

You can check out these papers along with other research and information on our food processing page.  If you have any questions, feel free to contact our ozone application engineers today.