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Often, we get asked how ozone oxidizes the air. With that being said, we believe it is imperative to discuss the specific scientific terms to understand the concept and present detailed steps to the process. Ozone is considered biocidal, which is defined as the action of killing harmful bacterial and biological contaminants. Because of its biocidal nature, viruses are not able to withstand the power of ozone. It occurs as a result of the double bonds of fatty acids in cell walls, membranes, and protein capsids. In viruses, the hindrance of the protein capsid prevents the spread of the virus from being consumed by vulnerable cells. Ozone punctures cell walls until it can no longer hold its original shape. In other words, the unstable electrons of ozone permeate through the membranes. The life of a microorganism becomes destroyed by ozone due to the fact that it needs to maintain its shape to remain alive. It destroys the cell walls of yeast and abnormal tissue cells by inactivating its enzymes. The strength of ozone is so strong that it can demonstrate hygienic action in seconds. Variables such as pH, concentration levels, temperature, humidity, specific organism, and time play a vital role in the kill rate of pathogens. Once applied to air, the ozone will attach to the pollutants in the airspace and consume them. From there, it will quickly bond back to oxygen. This particular factor separates ozone from any other oxidizer because it does not leave any harmful by-products or residues. Ozone is unique because it benefits by oxidizing natural organic compounds as well as inorganics. For example, ozone slows the ripening of fruits and vegetables by consuming ethylene gas and undesirable odors. Filters, ionizers, and sprays do not eliminate the root of the odor, whereas ozone accomplishes this task. Filters will catch the air that happens to pass through them. Ionizers put a negative charge on air particles in the air, which causes them to drop on room surfaces. Ozone, on the other hand, attacks the pollutant at its source and reverts back to its safe state.
References: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air and Radiation, EPA Report 402-k-00-002, March 2000
Have you heard of the IPPE (International Production & Processing Expo)? The IPPE is hailed as the largest annual trade show for the Poultry, Meat, and Feed Industries. In 2013, the International Poultry Expo, International Feed Expo, and International Meat Expo came together and integrated their tradeshows in 2013, under the IPPE. This particular event focuses on the innovation by bringing together buyers and sellers of the latest technology of products and services to make your business more successful! We are looking forward to attending the three day IPPE (International Production & Processing Expo) from Jan. 31 – Feb 2. This year’s conference http://ippexpo.com/ is at the Georgia World Congress Center. The location is 285 Andrew Young International Blvd. N.W. in Atlanta, Georgia. There will be more than 1,200 exhibitors and 30,000 visitors during this time. A number of us attend this conference every year from our organization. This year, Ozone Solutions will be represented by Sannel Patel, Abdul Daoud, and myself (Brialle Veldman). If you are interested in attending this conference, please contact us. We would love to be able to organize an arrangement to meet with you.
Here is a link http://ippe17.mapyourshow.com/7_0/login/login.cfm
The Michigan Grape & Wine Conference is a highly anticipated annual event that brings together many different members of the industry. Vineyard managers, tasting room staff, winery owners, wine educators and wine marketers alike will find sessions appealing to their specialty. This year’s conference is expected to draw about 300 attendees. This year’s conference will take place February 21-24 in Acme, Michigan at the Grand Traverse Resort. It will feature many excellent sponsors and exhibitors, including Ozone Solutions – which provides technology for a wide variety of industry applications including CIP (Clean in Place) systems, odor control, bottle washing, and sanitation of surfaces and barrels. New this year is a Winery Development pre-conference, a day- long session taking place on Wednesday, February 22 for those interested in getting involved with the industry. Participants will learn about licensing requirements, handling wastewater issues, zoning requirements, winery marketing, business planning and much more. Also new this year is the Michigan Certified Alcohol Service Training, valuable for members of the service industry, taking place on Tuesday and Wednesday of this week. This session includes Techniques in Alcohol Management training, Customer Service Training and a Wine Fluency course. In addition to the pre-conference sessions, Thursday’s agenda is filled with courses geared toward vineyard health, business development and the marketing of your winery businesses. Additional activities include a welcome reception on Wednesday evening, which includes sampling and networking with winemakers around the state, and a “Travelling Dinner” in which award winning Michigan wines will be paired with food from around the world. This conference is designed to benefit both novice and experienced industry members, and encourages participation from neighboring states and regions. For more information and to register for the conference, please visit michiganwines.com/conference. Jenelle Jagmin Michigan Grape & Wine Industry Council
From a social and environmental standpoint, there has been some recent hype on the use of antibacterial soap for washing hands to prevent illnesses in the past couple of years. Whether you are feeling chipper or under the weather, it is always a good practice to wash your hands. There are many of us who purchase products with labels such as “99.99% effective in reducing airborne bacteria” or anything with “antibacterial” listed on there with the idea that we are preventing illness. As a marketing strategy to fool society, they are manipulating the public’s perception that we are “clean” when in fact, this is not the case. “I suspect there are a lot of consumers who assume that by using an antibacterial soap product, they are protecting themselves from illness, protecting their families,” Sandra Kweder, deputy director of the FDA’s drug center, told the AP. “But we don’t have any evidence that that is really the case over conventional soap and water.” In fact, about 75% of liquid antibacterial soaps and 30% of bars use a chemical called triclosan as an active ingredient. When you spray your countertop or surface with your general household cleaner it will leave a residual of active compounds that target bacteria- but it will not oxidize them. The main ingredient in many solutions that have an antibacterial agent is called triclosan. Triclosan, is an antibacterial and antifungal agent found in many consumer products such as detergents, toothpaste, and toys. With the widespread use, the soap industry expanded to nearly $1 billion dollars in the 1990s. In 1972, triclosan was introduced to the market and used strictly in health care facilities. Presently, several products such as wipes, mattress pads, cosmetics, and cutting boards have triclosan in it. This particular chemical has been the focus of a reform managed by an alliance of health and environmental groups. Studies display that triclosan has been increasingly linked to a wide range of health issues. There are five main reasons you should not use antibacterial soap with triclosan as an active ingredient. First, antibiotic-resistant bacteria is produced from antibacterial soap. Secondly, it does not produce any more benefits than conventional soap. Third, Triclosan can act as an endocrine disruptor, especially thyroid hormone. Fourth, some allergies such as hay fever and peanut allergies have been linked to prolong use from antibacterial soap. Last but not least, antibacterial soap harms the environment. Triclosan can disrupt algae’s ability to perform photosynthesis. In 2009, dolphins in the east coast were found to have high levels in their blood. As an act to regulate, Minnesota has become the first state to ban common germ-killer triclosan in soap. “Triclosan has been banned from consumer personal care cleaning products in the state of Minnesota by an act of the state legislature.” This will take an effect on January 1, 2017. Alternatives like a non-antibiotic hand sanitizer can be exercised in this fashion, yet the best idea for this is benefiting from the rewards of ozone. With ozone, it will attract to the single bacterium, virus, mold or cyst by changing its molecular shape and eventually revert back to oxygen, leaving no harmful by-products.
Stromberg, Joseph. “Five Reasons Why You Should Probably Stop Using Antibacterial Soap.” Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution, 3 Jan. 2014. Web. 03 Jan. 2017.
Here at Ozone Solutions, we often get confronted with questions from customers and prospects regarding some misleading information regarding ozone. Often, we here similar questions pertaining to the half-life of ozone in water and air, material degradation, and residual. Proper implementation is key to achieving outstanding results in your process. An interesting fact about ozone is that it successfully eliminated an organism in Milwaukee, WI in 1993. In the summer of that year, a cryptosporidium outbreak resulted in the largest waterborne disease outbreak in documented United States history. An estimated 400,000 were ill with over 100 deaths attributed to this outbreak. At that time, chlorine was the primary disinfection technology and was useless against this cyst. A 55 million dollar ozone system was installed and effectively killed the organism. With that being said, we would like to clear the air regarding a few fallacies that we have heard:
- “Ozone will oxidize my metal pipes.” – This claim conjures an image of aqueous ozone running through pipes and when you come in the next morning, they are rusted through. This is not the case. The pH level has more effect on corrosion rates of metals than most industry accepted dissolved ozone levels. While a powerful oxidizer, ozone has minimal effect on corrosion rates. Iron pipes that carry ozone gas, while not recommended, will last for months, even years, before any noticeable corrosion is present. For aqueous ozone, iron pipes will oxidize faster than water with just oxygen, but the pipes can last for years before needing replacement. Are you concerned with the material compatibility? Please give us a call and we will assist you with this information.
- “Ozone does not have residual.” – This statement is also false, but does need some clarity. Ozone has an extremely short half-life. This short half-life makes it very reactive and excellent at killing pathogens. In very clean water, ozone can last for several hours. In most food processing applications, ozone half-life is anywhere from 10-20 minutes using aqueous ozone applications.
- “Ozone is Explosive.” – This proclamation is also not true. For ozone concentrations produced by commercial and industrial grade ozone generator, ozone is NOT explosive. We have been working with ozone for almost 20 years and have not heard one instance where ozone caused an explosion. Believe us that if there ever was an explosion, it would make world news. In order for an explosion to occur, there needs to be additional oxygen added to an area, whereas our systems are converting the ambient air into ozone.
- “The sky is blue because of ozone.” –Although this statement does not pertain to our business, we thought it would be best to discuss this. While ozone is a light blue gas, the sky is blue for another reason. The blue color of the sky is due to Rayleigh scattering. Blue light has a shorter wavelength than the other “rainbow colors.” This blue light is absorbed by the gas molecules. The absorbed blue light is then radiated in different directions. It gets scattered all around the sky. Whichever direction you look, some of this scattered blue light reaches you. Since you see the blue light from everywhere overhead, the sky looks blue. Hence, the next time someone asks, “Why is the sky blue?” you will have the answer!
- (2003). Costs of Illness in the 1993 Waterborne Cryptosporidium Outbreak, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Emerging Infectious Diseases,9(4), 426-431. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid0904.020417.
Ozone has now integrated itself into the second century of being utilized into water treatments, spas, swimming pools, and cooling towers. In 2001, the FDA approved that ozone can be safely used as an antimicrobial agent in the categories of storage and processing of foods, including meat and poultry in both gas and aqueous phases. Since 2001, the general acceptance of ozone has been embraced to many industries such as wineries. Ozone has proven to effectively disinfect and clean barrels, tanks, and general surface sanitation.
Upon the decision of many food processing facilities to have the ozone system in a stationary position, this route makes it easier to manage safety from the off-gassing and efficacy to be simple. Although, in the wine industry, ozone systems tend to be mobile with many different locations that need the flexibility to move the system from one area to another with the intent to have more locations and operators to produce mass production. It is imperative to have an entire system be dependable and straightforward. Ozone has remained the most powerful oxidant for disinfecting water or sanitizing surfaces with a 2.07 oxidizing potential. Once the aqueous ozone is sprayed, the ozone will revert back to oxygen through a 20 minute half-life time under normal environment conditions. With that being said, it is generated on-site and cannot be stored preventing more costly demands in the future
Ozone sanitizes by perforating metabolic enzymes of the bacteria and denaturing microbial membranes to disrupt its molecular shape. A particular concern with using ozone is knowing what material is compatible with ozone. Many materials used in the food/beverage industries are stainless steel (e.g., 316L) which is able to withstand ozone longer than chlorine. Plastics, such as PTFE (Teflon), PVC, PVDF, and silicon tubing and gaskets are ozone compatible. When it comes to the actual surface of barrels, it does not have a discrete surface, it is more like a 4-5mm sponge, often with blisters. The porosity of the barrels provide far too many nooks and crannies for ozone in any concentration and duration to completely eradicate all microbes. The ozone treatment of barrels is designed not to eliminate microbes, but instead to control them. This concept of microbial control is especially important when ozone is used to treat barrels with high populations of microbes, which can produce off-flavors or cause wine spoilage. Standard procedure for barrel washing varies from winery to winery, but it typically includes a high pressure, hot water rinse, followed by a dissolved ozone water treatment. The concentration of ozone applied, as well as the contact reaction time in the barrels, depends on the quantity and nature of the contaminant. As a result, larger quantities of microbes in contaminated barrels require longer treatments, but smaller doses may be required to handle sensitive materials. Typically, a 2.5 ppm ozone concentration for two minutes on healthy barrels, after a hot water flush, is sufficient. If the barrel is severely contaminated, a five-minute treatment may be required. Ozone kills microbes much faster than weaker oxidizers like chlorine or permanganate, but it decomposes naturally into oxygen unlike harsher agents with harmful disinfection by-products.
There are many ways that Ozone can be applied to the food and beverage industries. Some of the most essential cleaning duties are those related to the washing of process pipes, tanks, and process vessels where CIP (Clean in Place) systems are of frequent use. In terms of environmentally safe, cost-effective, and increased production, ozone has become a popular alternative to chlorine. In the past, chlorine has been the most common sanitizer used in CIP systems. Even though chlorine is effective, it has the potential to leave residuals and create potentially harmful by-products. However, ozone has become widespread since November 1892 when the FDA gave ozone GRAS approval. Ozone has been utilized pertaining to the beverage industry for disinfection of the fillers, bottles, and product(s). The beauty of ozone is that it has no by-products or residuals that can alter the flavors of a beverage or other product. It also has the ability to replace hot water cycles, eliminate some or all chemicals, reduce transporting and handling risks, and shortening the CIP cycle time. The implementation of ozone in the beverage industry can be of benefit for the process and downtime improvements more than the cost savings. The reasoning for applying ozone in the wine and beer industries is due to the nature of the final product. On the contrary, some beverage industries have favored the use of ozone merely for cost saving measures. With less time in the downtime period, product flow can be increased. According to the ECO3CIP project (2010-2013) which dealt with the original industrial application of an ozone based CIP system and its evidence. “According to the all the data obtained as a consequence of the implementation of the OZONECIP project the integration of the use of ozone in CIP systems allowed a reduction of the water consumption needed to perform the cleaning and disinfection operations of closed equipments in the winery, brewery and dairy sectors compared to conventional CIP protocols keeping, at least, the same disinfection and cleanliness efficiency and reducing at least by 50% the organic load in the cleaning waste waters produced.” (Reducing costs by integrating ozonated water in the CIP systems)
- Pascual, I. Llorca and A. Canut, Use of ozone in food industries for reducing the environmental impact of cleaning and disinfection activities. Trends in Food Science & Technology, (18) S29-S35 (2007)
In aquaculture applications, ozone has the ability to increase efficiency, lower pathogen amounts, and optimize water quality of the water treatment system. In particular, fish farms can benefit by allowing higher feed rates, which allows for higher growth rates. From an investment stand-point, adding ozone has shown an impressive return. The key to utilizing ozone in a specific process is how much ozone is needed to effectively treat a system. The best way to find out is gaining information from the potential customer on how their system is currently being treated to find an accurate solution. Provided the right concentration, any water treatment for RAS will be successful. Listed below are the reasons to incorporate ozone to aquaculture:
- The removal of fine and colloidal solids
- The removal of dissolved organic compounds
- The removal of nitrites
Generally, the required dosage of ozone for treatment in a RAS is formulated according to the daily feed rate. Rates of 10 to 15 grams of ozone per kilogram of feed are usually recommended to bring down the collected organics. If disinfection is the primary intention or purpose, the quantum of ozone is largely influenced by the organic contaminants in the water. In pure water, residual concentrations of 0.01-.1 PPM for periods of 15 seconds can be practical to reducing bacterial amounts. Thus, the more contaminants of bacteria, the more residual ozone is needed to provide enough disinfection. Natural waters, generally require residual concentrations between 0.1-0.2 ppm of ozone for 1-5 minutes for disinfection. Aquaculture effluent usually requires between 0.2-0.4 ppm residual ozone for 1-5 minutes for significant disinfection to take place after oxidation of organics. For most favorable outcomes, the rate of ozone for disinfection is heavily dependent on factors listed above. It also represents the total amount of ozone demand. Give us a call to improve your aquaculture today!
NSW Government. “Ozone in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems.” Ozone in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Department of Primary Industries, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2016.
Treating Harmful Formaldehyde Levels with Ozone:
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, generally pungent, yet sometimes odorless gas that when present in very small concentrations is not a major concern. However, it is present in public areas such as public buildings and many working environments that we are exposed to everyday that can be harmful. Formaldehyde is inevitably constant at low levels, usually less than 0.03 parts per million (ppm), in both outdoor and indoor air. Naturally occurring in the environment, it is an essential metabolic intermediate in all cells. With an occupational exposure limit value of .94 mg/m3, formaldehyde was considered safe against sensory irritation in the airways. The direct result from automobile exhaust is a major source of this chemical. It is also a component in tobacco smoke and those breathing it in as secondhand smoke are exposed to a higher level. Variables such as temperature, humidity, and air exchange all play a role in that concentration level. This chemical is generally used as a drying or curing agent in materials and thus release VOCs as part of this process. VOCs (volatile organic compounds) pose a health risk to everyone. Why you may ask? VOCs are extremely hazardous by constituting side effects such as eyes, throat, and nose irritation, frequent headaches, nausea, and damaging the central nervous system. This problem may be lurking in your home or office building as you read this. For instance, purchasing pressed-wood shelves, laminate flooring, shampoos, etc all contain some form of formaldehyde. If your product does not say “readily biodegradable” and “nontoxic to humans and aquatic life” then it is likely that the product contains formaldehyde. What is most daunting is that this chemical can be odorless in some forms at low concentrations and a person can experience the off-gassing of formaldehyde and be unaware of it, which can lead to health concerns. Formaldehyde is permeated into the drywall or composite material in the area; therefore it is assumed that VOCs from the formaldehyde will continue to linger for several months to even a year. A crucial alternative to utilize is ozone for this application. Ozone, being a reactive gas, is an effective solution because it pulls electrons to oxidize. The first step is to access the space for the major source of VOCs. Secondly, remove the problematic furnishings, and then lastly, treat the exposed air with ozone. Call us for more details for a healthier environment!
“Formaldehyde Exposure in Homes: A Reference for State …” N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2016.